Chem C103 Chapter 8 Section 2 and 3 Notes
Chem C103 Chapter 8 Section 2 and 3 Notes CHEM-C 103
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meegan Voss on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM-C 103 at Indiana University taught by Arnold K / Snaddon D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES in Chemistry at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
C103 Topic 2 9 If the walls in a room are 955 square feet in area, and a gallon of paint covers 15 square yards, how many gallons of paint are needed for the room? (3 ft = 1 yd) 1. 47 gallons 2. 21 gallons 3. 7.1 gallons 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% 4. 24 gallon 5. 2.3 gallons llo llo lln 47al21ns 71 2 a 23llons SAACS Callout (Student Affiliates of the American Chemical Society) Thursday September 10 th 5:30 p.m. in C127 Chemistry Majors and non‐Chemistry Majors Welcome! We are an organization that strives to connect students with faculty, industry, research, service opportunities, hands‐on chemistry and each other. Come by if you want a group that combines philanthropy, networking, social events, amazing science and want to know more. Questions? Can’t make it but are still interested? Contact firstname.lastname@example.org C103 Top 2 9 Modern Periodic Table Periodic Table C103 Topic 2 9 Mendeleev (1834–1907) •Ordered elements by atomic mass •Saw a repeating pattern of properties •Periodic law –whentheelmentsarearranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically. •Put elements with similar properties in the same column •Used pattern to predict properties of undiscovered elements •Where atomic mass order did not fit other properties, he re-ordered by other properties. •Te and I Mendeleev’s Predictions C103 Topic 2 9 What versus Why •Mendeleev’s Periodic Law allows us to predict what the properties of an element will be based on its position on the table. •It doesn't explain why the pattern exists. •Quantum mechanics is a theory that explains why the periodic trends in the properties exist. • Knowing why allows us to predict what. What is an atomic orbital? •Orbitals and Orbits • Idea of orbits for electrons moving around the nucleus does _____ work. •Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle • Impossible to define with __________ precision, at the same time, both the ____________ and the ________________ of an electron. •What do we know about the electron’s location? • An __________ is just a bit of space where there is a 95% chance of finding that particular electron. If an electron is in a particular orbital, you know about its energy - but there is no way of knowing how it is moving around within that orbital. • Orbitals come in all sorts of different shapes and sizes and energy levels. C103 Topic 2 9 Electrons exist in Orbitals •Energy Levels: • In the 1 energy level there is 1 s orbitals nd • In the 2 energy level, there are 1 s and 3 p orbitals • In the 3 energy level, there are 1 s, 3 p and 5 d orbitals. • In the 4 energy level there are 1 s, 3 p, 5 d and 7 f orbitals •A description of the orbitals ccupied by electrons is called an electron configuration. •Electrons usually occupy the ______energy orbitals available. Pauli Exclusion Principle Knowing the number orbitals in a sublevel allows us to determine the maximum number of electrons in the sublevel: ▯s sublevel has ___ orbital; therefore, it can hold ___ electrons. ▯p sublevel has ___ orbitals; therefore, it can hold ___ electrons. ▯d sublevel has ___ orbitals; therefore, it can hold ___ electrons. ▯f sublevel has ___ orbitals; therefore, it can hold ___ electrons. C103 Topic 2 9 Filling the Orbitals with Electrons • Energy levels and sublevels fill from lowest _________ to high: ▯s → p → d → f ▯Aufbau principle • Orbitals that are in the same sublevel have the same energy. • No more than _____ electrons per orbital. ▯Pauli exclusion principle • When filling orbitals that have the same energy, place one electron in each before completing pairs. ▯Hund’s rule C103 Topic 2 9 Electron Configurations Electron Configuration of Atoms in Their Ground State • The electron configuration is a listing of the sublevels in order of filling with the number of electrons in that sublevel written as a superscript. Ar = 18 electrons = A short-hand way of writing an electron configuration is to use the symbol of the previous noble gas in brackets [ ] to represent all the inner electrons, and then just write the last set. K = 19 electrons = =
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