soil and weathering
soil and weathering 1610
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Popular in Geology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Barry on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1610 at University of North Texas taught by Johnny Byers in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Geology in Geology at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
our earth is dynamic plutonic volcanic and orogenic forces are constantly elevating parts of earth opposing forces are removing materials form higher elevation all materials subject to weathering terminology geomorphology-study of landforms,origin,evolution and spatial distribution denudation-any process that wears away or rearranges landforms base level- level below which a stream cannot prod its valley further ultimate base level=sea level weathering when a rock is broken into smaller and smaller pieces mechanical(physical) and chemical mechanical-looks like parent rock chemical-changes appearance mechanical weathering physical forces primary agent is water examples:frost action or frost wedging,salt-crystal growth,solution (potholes),exfoliation organic activities (biogenic) sedimentary rock:breccia organic activities- root wedging is most common ,clams,ant mounds chemical weathering -changes appearance and elements broken down (doesn’t look like parent rock) water is primary agent burning a fossil fuel will release acids in the air (and results in acid rain) example of dissolution c02+h20 carbonic acid organisms dead-plant and animal decay hydrolysis creates spheroidal weathering cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water oxidation -rust mass wasting the dislodgment and down slope transportation of soil or rock under the direct application of gravitational stress gravity=primary control water=the amount present (increased mass and makes clay slick) slope-angle of repose type of materials:debri,rock,mud,earth type of motion: slide-cohesive materials ﬂow =ﬂuid type motion fall-free fall in response to gravity rate of movement -slow or creep or ﬂoating on air can be a slump,creep,rock slide,land slide or earth ﬂow,mudﬂow or debris ﬂow,rock fall,soliﬂuction Soil Soil is not dirt Soil is medium of growth for plants Unstable entity Slow motion whirlpool of mineral and organic matter Main component of earth loose material in earths surface capable of supporting life Soil forms from pedosohere,the interface between the lithosphere,biosphere,atmosphere and hydrosphere Unit of study is a pedon,a 3D sample of the subsurface Soil proﬁles used to describe pedons Hans Jenny Soil= f(CLORPT) Climate Organisms Relief Parent material Time Stability and weathering are 2 other factors Stability-zero erosion and zero deposition Horizonation Later of soil parallel to soil surface with characteristics produced by soil forming processes Field approach to horizons: Color Texture Structure Clay ﬁlms Ph/concretions Mottles-different colors ,reddish brown for example ;ﬂuctuating water tables krotovina Boundaries Munsell soil color chart Hue Value Chroma 10yr4/2 Sand:2mm-62microns Silt:62 microns-4 microns Clay: less than 4 microns Ph scale Forest soils are acidic(lots of hydrogen ions),no bones ,some stones Prairie soils are alkaline (lots of calcium carbonate ) ,lots of stones and bones Clay ﬁlms-illuviation,weathering Ph/concretions: iron and calcium carbonate Mottled-variegated colors,ﬂuctuating water table Krotovina-plant and animal hurtles Boundaries-deﬁne horizons Master horizons O-surface horizon ,organic material ,very dark,leaf litter A-zone of intense weathering ,eluvation of clay silt,iron,carbonate,coarser grained,granular structure ,accumulation of organic matter,darker than underlying horizons (exit) E-leached horizon ,light in color,eluvation of organics B-zone of accumulation of products of weathering - clay,iron,aluminum,carbonates,gypsum,illuviation-redder than overlying horizons,blocky or prismatic structure (in) Eluvation -exiting Illuviation-accumulation,going in C-unaltered or slightly altered parent material,sediments R-hard bedrock K-well cemented carbonate horizon Alﬁsols-forest soils with agrillic horizons (clay b horizon)-alf-pedalfer Woodbine sandstone eastern cross timbers Paluxy sandstone-western cross timbers Mollisols- Grassland soils of steppes and prairies -oll-soft-mollify Austin chalk,good land limestone Black land and Grand Prairie Vertisols-shrinking and swelling dark clay soils-ert-turn-invert Flood plains and adjacent to drainages Aridisols Soils of dry region -id-arid West Texas soils,lots of carbonates Entisols-recently formed soils Weak horizonation Recent-ent Inceptisols-baby soils #31-exfoliation Woodbine-alﬁsol,eastern cross timbers, beach 22.Regional-bigger ,regional boundaries Contact-smaller,comes in contact with magma
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