Microbiology 201 Week one notes
Microbiology 201 Week one notes MICRB 201
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Spellacy on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MICRB 201 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Steven Keating in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Introductory Microbiology in Microbiology at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Microbiology 201 Dr Steven Keating WEEK ONE NOTES 11316 Eukaryotic Organisms Plants and animals 0 Eukaryotic cells I Larger than prokaryotic cells roughly 10X I Size 1020 microns micron 1 1000 mm compared to prokaryotic bacteria which are roughly 0520 microns I Contain more internal organization compared to prokaryotes I Contain a nucleus 0 Compartment with a double walled membrane 0 Communicates through pores and finds genes on multiple chromosomes 0 Contain histones proteins that help coil DNA not in prokaryotes Other eukaryotic cell structures on table in Angel Fungi 0 Characteristics Eukaryotic some unicellular some multicellular have cell walls nonphotosynthetic 0 Cell Walls I Composed of m and glucose Dolvmers zymosan I Compared to a bacterial cell wall which is composed of peptidoglycan 0 Many antibiotics act against peptidoglycan but are not effective against fungi I Nonphotosynthetic I Fungi must absorb organic molecules sugar etc from the surrounding environment I Secrete enzymes to digest organic molecules 0 Growth Forms 1 Single cell forms ex Yeast oval shaped 2 Filamentous ex Molds 0 Produce multicelled threads called hyphae 0 Mass of hyphae is called mycelia 3 Dimorphic 0 Assume two different forms depending on the environment and growth stage I Spores I In fungi spores are used for dispersal In bacteria spores are used for survival in harsh environments I Types 1 Asexual does not combine genes conidia 2 Sexual combines genes of two mating types 0 Useful in classification divisions are based on sexual spore type I Roles of Fungi I Decomposers O Secrete enzvmes to break down molecules and remove dead plant and animal debris 0 Convert organics into carbon dioxide 0 Commercial Importance I Food spoilage 0 ex Rhizopus common bread mold I Source of useful enzymes 0 ex Analyses from aspergillus are used to make light beer I Saccharomyces O Yeasts that produce C02 and ethanol which is used to make beer wine and bread 11516 0 Commercial Importance cont I Penicillium source of penicillin also in blue cheese I Mushrooms Mushrooms 0 Characteristics 39 Diverse groups I Produce eshy spore producing fruiting body I Bulk of fungus is underground mycelium then fungi grow out from a central point to create rings fairy rings pictures on power point I Leading edge most active in decomposition leading to greatest plant growth 0 Groups 1 Basidiomycota mushrooms most mushroom species I Produce basidiospores I Many are edible ex Button mushrooms and shiitake ISome produce hallucinogenic chemicals Example Psilocybe 0 Used for centuries in religious rituals O Psilocvbin binds to serotonin receptors which are involved in emotion and sense 0 Psilocybin changes sensory perception causing hallucinations 2 Ascomycota I Produce acsospores I Few are mushrooms I Truf es O Mycelia develops in close association With tree roots 0 Example Black Truf e T melosporum associates With oak roots underground entirely expensive 0 Truf e pigs or dogs smell truf es so people can dig them up and sell them Plant Pathogens I Majority of plant diseases are fungal I Example Rust crop disease that effects Wheat and corm O Economically important I Example Dutch Elm Disease 0 Ophiostoma is transmitted from elm to elm through beetles O Arrived in US in 1930s Human Diseases 0 Human diseases caused by fungi may be difficult to treat because humans and fungi both have eukaryotic cells So drugs toxic to fungi may also be toxic to humans 0 External Diseases superficial I Easier to treat because treatment can be applied to skin I Example Trichophyton 0 Cause skin infections such as athlete s foot and ringworm 0 Treated With a topical antifungal I Example Candida albicans O Dimorphic 0 Causes yeast infections and oral thrush 0 Treated With miconazole Which inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol in the cell membrane of the fungi 0 Internal Diseases I More difficult to treat because drugs may be toxic to humans I Example Histoplasma 0 Causes histoplasmosis Which is a life threatening lung infection 0 Spores are found in bird and bat droppings 0 Treated With amphotericin B which associates With ergosterol in the cell membrane of the fungi But it also associates With cholesterol and damages human cell membranes
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