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Note for SPH 267 with Professor Dean at UA

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.

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Date Created: 02/06/15
DOPPLER EFFECT o What would you say if someone asked you to brie y describe nonimathematically the Doppler Effect 0 When a sound source is in motion the wavelength in front of the source is shortened and is lengthened behind the source Knowing that f what changes qualitative can we expect in the frequency of the source as it approaches and as it departs o A sound source moving at 136 ms has a frequency of 450 Hz a What frequency would be heard as the source approaches b What frequency would be heard after the source passes by Assume that the speed of sound is 340 ms 5 340 ms7 f 450 Hz7 v5 136 ms c 340 fa fltciv5gt 450 73407136 750Hz c 340 fd 7 fltcv5gt 7450ltmgt 73214Hz 0 To calculate speed 1 from the approaching and departing frequencies 7 Cfa fd v5 7 fa fd FILTERS 0 Give a brief nonimathematical description of a lter 0 True or False A lter only works predictably when the input is a periodic wave 0 What is a transfer function 0 Can you identify transfer functions that correspond to lowipass hi ghipass and bandpass lters 0 Given a transfer function with a dB scale can you nd the upper and lower cutoff frequencies and determine the bandwidth 0 Given a lowipass lter with a cutoff frequency of 1000 Hz and a attenuation rollioff of 710 dBOctave how many dB wouldbe removedfrom the amplitude of a 2000 Hz sine wave as it passes through the lter 0 Given a highipass lter with a cutoff frequency of 2000 Hz and a attenuation rollioff of 76 dBOctave how many dB wouldbe removedfrom the amplitude of a 500 Hz sine wave as it passes through the lter 0 Given an input spectrum and a transfer function be able to determine the output spectrum 0 Given a spectrogram of a ltered sound could you identify the transfer function from a collection of transfer functions that most likely was used to lter the sound 0 Give an example of some physical structure that could create a lter 0 What is one typical characteristic of resonant lters 0 Striking a tuning fork is like giving it an impulsive input 7 but what results in the outputis a sine wave pure tone What is the lter explanation of how this could happen ie how can an impulsive input produce a sinusoidal output o In each column of the table shown below is a an input spectrum b a vocal tract transfer function and c a blank spectrum For each column determine the harmonic amplitudes that would be in the output spectrum and draw them in the blank spectrum given The transfer function in this case shows the number of dB that are either taken away subtracted from or added to the frequency components in the input spectrum u u m7 7 7 7 7 m7 7 7 m7 7 m7 t t t t t g 5 g 5 4 4 4 4 4 g u g D7 t t t t t 7 g 55 g 55 r r 4 4 4 4 4 37 7 Eur t t t t 7 E 55 E 55 r r 4 4 4 lt m 5 lt m 7 7 7 7 7 5 57 57 D7 7 7 7 7 D7 7 7 77 7 57 7 57 t t t t t t t t t t l mu m mu m um mu m Em mu 2mm l mu m mu m um mu m Em mu 2mm INPUT reque cy HZ requency HZ SPECTRUM 139 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 139 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 57 7 57 7 7 57 7 V V V 57 7 V V V 8 u 8 u u u E 5 E 5 g 5 4 4 4 4 g 5 4 4 4 4 a s7 7 a s7 7 E 77 7 E 77 7 277 7 277 7 m7 7 7 m7 7 7 r7 7 57 7 Qu u z m Lu a m u 2m Qu u z m Lu a m u 2m TRANSFER requency HZ requency Hz FUNCTION 5 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l a l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 557 7 5D7 7 5 u a a 5 g g m7 a a 257 g 3 2D7 7 a i 5 E E Equot 39 lt lt 57 7 u u 5777 7 57 t 7 UN u 57 7 7 7 7 7 57 7 7 7 2 zlu u u m u Lu m u mm 2 zlu u u m u Lu m u mm OUTPUT requency HZ requency Hz SPECTRUM What is constructive interference What is destructive interference Brie y explain what causes a standing wave Why are they called standing waves Based on the boundary conditions at open or closed ends could you draw the standing wave in an open7open closed7open or closed7closed tube Given a graph of a standing wave be able to identify the nodes and dntinodes If you are presented with a picture showing a sound wave perhaps a pulse approaching either a hard wall or air boundary be prepared draw the re ected wave Understand the space7time diagram for the closed7open tube and how the F1 formula was derived from it Know how to use the formulas for the closediopen openiopen and closediclosed tubes Given a transfer function or a series of resonance frequencies be able to determine the end conditions coo oc7c and calculate the tube length Attsnuaum d9 500 mm t EIEI 2000 2500 3000 Fl EmEnEy Hz PHONATION The gure below shows a glottal ow waveform superimposed on the output sound pressure waveform Mark the portions of the glottal ow waveform that correspond to a closed glottis During this closed period it can be seen that the output sound pressure continues to oscillate between negative and positive pressures What causes this aller My ll 0 0005 001 0015 002 0025 lmes If the vocal folds are longer and thicker for adult males than females what is the cause of males having a lower fundamental frequency See questions in HW22 SOURCE FILTERSPEECH ACOUSTICS In a sourcei ltermodel of vowel production what is the primary source What are some possible secondary sound sources for vowels Anatomically speaking what creates the lter in the sourcei lter model What is a formant With regard to speech what is the origin of the fundamental frequency A simple approximation to the vocal tract shape is a uniform tube closed at one end and open at the other Which end of the vocal tract is considered closed and open How can the closediend approximation be justi ed A uniform tube is assumed to roughly represent which vowel Would the same vowel spoken by a male and female be expected to have the same formant frequencies Why or why not

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