SYO4402 Week 3 & 4 Lecture Notes: 1/26, 2/2 & 2/4
SYO4402 Week 3 & 4 Lecture Notes: 1/26, 2/2 & 2/4 SYO4402
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Adams on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SYO4402 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Nowakowski in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Medical Sociology in Sociology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
HIVAIDS previously called GRID Caused because injection drug use plasma and blood transfusions and sex without condoms 1 Epidemiology basics A Science of identify lying and exploring how health conditions develop and spread a London 19903 cholera was everywhere b Cholera big deal for countries that don39t have clean water c There was an idea that disease is a nebulous pestilence that come from the heavens d Started to notice that disease was centralized in the poor places in town thieves prostitutes etc e Idea that God was punishing these people B Birth of epi John snow removes pump handle to investigate cholera a Thought that if it was just punishment then why were other people getting sick too b Started marking cholera on a map and noticed that it was centralized in the poor places but also noticed that it was also centralized in the towns by water pumps c 3 pumps where there were large cases of cholera and the others weren39t d Notices the 3 pumps were from a certain water company e Took the handle off the pump and studies it under a microscope sees bacteria C Social epi focuses on factors related to structures relationships culture a How biological and social factors are interrelated D quotFundamental causationquot of health by social factors a Not random had something to do with where you live and maybe even when you work b First documented case that social positions are an underlying cause of social health conditions c The ones who got the disease were solely in the poor parts of town that were next to poor water sources d Who actually matters in the eyes of the public E Social distributions of outcomes in physical and mental health a Can39t get rid of the discrimination but we can give people tools to deal and live with it F Different means of prevention a Primary when something never starts 1 Ex smoking diseases preventing people from never starting to smoke b Secondary someone has a health condition but you can make it better by removing something that makes it worse or using prevention 1 Ex someone who smokes and has bronchitis so the person can cut out smoking to help their bronchitis c Tertiary where you take a lifesaving measure but the ending have devastating consequences permanent outcome that you cannot reverse 1 Preventing death but quality of life is not good 2 Ex Berger39s syndrome amputations G Why do people smoke knowing it is not good a Culture b Peer pressure c Exposure to family member who also do it H Who is most likely to smoke a Preadolescent and adolescents b Economically disadvantaged c Race 1 Blacks more in females than males 2 White opposite d Sexuality Youth attracted to people of the same sex and trans people are more likely than people that like people of the opposite sex 1 Has to do with stress I What choices are realistic for you a May involve more labor one way or another b Neighborhood contents gt Walmart one the other side of town vs The Walmart on Tennessee street 2 Epi research methods A Types descriptive what and inferential trying to draw some conclusions on why outcomes different of why something happened why or how B Observations designs prospective cohort retrospective cohort casecontrol a Cohort a group of people with one thing in common ex smokers 1 Always the exposure that is the same to make people in the group related 2 Gathering them up by grouping people 3 Easy to get people to participate b Exposure something in life that is relative to health c Casecontrol study coming groups to tease out why one have an outcome over another 1 Gathering up by an exposure 2 Ex people who smoke have burgers disease and have an amputated limb 3 Harder to get people to participate d Quasi experimental designs intervention with pre and post testing 1 Where you do something and you test people39s status before and after you do the thing prepost testing e Experimental designs randomized controlled trials RCTs 1 Very rare because most the time unethical 2 Very complex and expensive study where you randomize people on groups to isolate the unique effects of the treatment 3 BIG ETHICAL ISSUES f Time frames crosssectional vs Longitudinal 1 Crosssectional taking life and cutting a slice out of it one moment at a time A Ex survey 2 Longitudinal multiple measurement overtime g Analytic techniques quantitative qualitative mixed methods 1 After you have done your research what do you do with the results 2 Ways we make sense of what we learned 3 4 5 Mixed methods try to make equations to explain something that is happening 3 Freund et al 2003 A Looking at root causes if health and illness B quotUpstreamquot solution C Public health vs society risk factors and targets interventions vs fundamental causes and guidance for systemic change D Good example 4 Geronimus et al 2003 A quotWeatheringquot as a function of stress a The cumulative consequences of chronic stress Black woman took on so many roles c A process that happens to your body when you are exposed to stressful situations 1 Phase 1 Sympathetic adrenaline 2 Phase 2 Parasympathetic response cortisol d Ex beach and hurricane 1 The first time you can fix it but overtime you get weathered warn down have more health outcomes because of stress Stressors and chronic strains produces quotcumulative inequalityquot as an age Black females experiences more life stress on average gt birth outcomes are worse compared to white age peers How might this effect your thinking about trends in parenthood amount young people of African heritage 0quot Characteristics of groups more likely to be affected during the civil conflict Civilians Poor people along the border What is life like in a rural mining community Going to get water Farming Mine risk education prior to injuries 96 will know about mine risk education but they need their resources so they will take the risk What is life like what you have be injuries by a land mine Have to keep changing the prosthetics every year Prosthetics cost from 100200 Most people don39t have insurance Really hard to do the work you need to in this country Can39t do the daily activities Social responses to people39s bodies after losing a limb gt bodily integrity already feel so low because the life style they have to live and now they have lost a limb making everything worse See a lot of distinctions starting to emerge Starting to see there isn39t a one to one relationship between function and status Adler and Ostrove 1999 A Research on SES and health B Shift emphasis on poverty to emphasis on inequality absolute be relative disadvantage C How does SES exert its influence a Systems gt economics culture institutions b Communication gt environment 2 Burdened and hill 2008 A Social and environmental influences body weight B quotPerceived neighborhood disorderquot signs of economic distress and crime a People make judgments that they are not really in a safe neighborhood 1 Ex bars on the windows housing distress people just hanging out broken window theory trash cars police patrolling low establishments like prostitution b Life in a neighborhood like that is hard to make money to provide for your children c Talking about things that make people feel more safe in their neighborhood C Elaboration models a PNDgt psychological distressgt high BMI 1 Actually feeling like you are in danger b Physiological stress poor diet quality irregular exercise 3 Activity measuring people39s functions A Bell curve normal distribution B Functional measurement have to be very careful that we are measuring what we think we are measuring 4 Media example 1 Disarm A L Social Determinants environment income education gender race age sexuality region state of partnership Outcomes poor SD gt poor health 1 Spotlight on functioning A Two main types physical and cognitive B Measuring physical function a ADLS b IADLS C Measuring cognitive function a b MMSE K6 2 Media example 1 A Murderball B Athletes navigating life and competitive C They are not disabled they have functional rotation 3 Taylor 2008 A Physical functioning and aging B ADLS and IADLS C Why does race matter for physical functioning a 990quot e f Relates to Geronamus Black vs white with disability among upper 80s Race and race are controled for Found that the more discrimination the live with the worse their disability is the longer they will live with it Longitudinal study took one group of people and followed them overtime Different study Not really because you wouldn39t be able to get the same results 4 Taylor and turner A Stress and mental functioning as perceived discrimination B K6 cognitive C CESD depression D Measurement in strategy matters
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