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CCJ 3666 Victimology Ch 1 and 2 Notes

by: Ryan Desjardins

CCJ 3666 Victimology Ch 1 and 2 Notes CCJ 3666

Marketplace > Florida State University > Criminology and Criminal Justice > CCJ 3666 > CCJ 3666 Victimology Ch 1 and 2 Notes
Ryan Desjardins
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Dr. William Doerner

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First Week of Victimology Notes
Dr. William Doerner
Class Notes
Victimology, criminology, Criminal Justice, Florida State University




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 3666 at Florida State University taught by Dr. William Doerner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 413 views. For similar materials see Victimology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 01/24/16
Chapter 1 Study Notes To what does the term mala in se refer It refers to the way society recognizes murder and other serious affronts as totally unacceptable beha vior What is the difference between retribution and restitution Retribution is when the offender would suffer in proportion to the degree of harm ca used by hisher actions Restitution is when the offender would make payments in an amount suf cient to render the victim whoe again What does the term lex talionis mean It translates as eye for an eye tooth for a tooth This means punishment is equal to the harm in icted on the victim De ne deterrence The major goal of deterrence is to prevent future transgressions The thinking is that the lack of any enrichment or gain from criminal activity would make transgressive acts unattractive Compare and contrast the victim39s justice system with the criminal39s justice system The criminal 395 justice system used to be the side that was 39innocent until proven guilty39 the criminals were always assumed innocent The victims justice system was the one ghting to prove guitiness How did the victim s justice system turn into the criminal39s justice system In the justice system today it is all about nding suf cient evidence to ensure the criminal is guilty What is the relevance of the terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft for victim treatment When talking about societies and how people live an quotorganic societyquot refers to Gemeinschaft and a mechanic society refers to Gesellschaft Crimes committed in a Gemeinschaft type society hurt not just one individual the victim but hurts the entire society since everyone in the community has a duty and a place What is a typology and why did the early victimologists concentrate on creating typologies A typology is an effort to categorize observations into logical groupings to reach a better understanding of our social world The early victimologists concentrated on creating typologies to better see if the victim of the crime was actually contributing to its own victimization What is the importance of the criminalvictim dyad to people like Hans von Hen g the importance of the dyad is that it focuses on the dynamics what transpires between the two parties rather than the outcome What is the signi cance behind the book titles The Criminal and His Victim and The Victim and His Criminal 39The Criminal and His Victim was written by Hans von Hentig and 39The Victim and His Criminal 39 was written by Stephen Schafer Hans von Hentig uses the term 39victim participation39 whereas Schafer uses the term functiona responsibility39 in place What does the term agent provocateur imply A person who induces others to break the law so that they can be convicted Explain von Hentig39s victim typology that appears in Table 11 of the textbook This table explains that a victims characteristics may contribute to the victimization episode For example very young people females and elderly persons are more like y to lack the physical power to resist offendersgiving them a greater risk of being victimized What does the phrase quotblaming the victimquot mean The blamer39s way of coping with a bad situation as a listener or rationalizing one39s failure to intervene as a participant in the crime What categories does Mendelsohn introduce in his victim typology 1 Criminal 2 Self Suicide 3 Social Environment 4 Technology 5 Natural Environment Explore the typology presented in Table 13 of the textbook which Schafer developed Schafer39s typology builds upon victim responsibility for the crime Very similar to the groupings of von Hentig39s however Schafer explicit y sets forth the responsibility of different victims while von Hentig just identi es the varying risk factors What does quotvictim precipitationquot mean Victim Precipitation is the degree to which the victim is responsible for his or her victimization What was the importance of Wolfgang39s homicide study Wolfgang 39s homicide study revealed that 26 of the homicides occurring between 1948 and 1952 resulted from victim precipitation How did Wolfgang de ne victim precipitation Wolfgang 5 de nition of victim precipitation was quotthe rst in the homicide drama to use physical force directed against his subsequent slayer The victimprecipitated cases are those in which the victim was the rst to show and use a deadly weapon to strike a blow in an altercationin short the rst to commence the interplay of resort to physical violence quot What three ndings or empirical regularities emerged from Wolfgang s homicide study 1 The victim and offender knew each other 2 Violence escalated 3 Alcoholdrug consumption by either or both parties Discuss Amir39s research Amir was a student of Marvin Wolfgang He wrote Patterns of Forcibe Rape replicating Wolfgang s methodology His ndings concluded that of forcible rape in Philadelphia from 19581960 19 of cases deemed victimprecipitated Did Wolfgang39s study and Amir39s research support or refute the concept of victim precipitation Wolfgang and Amir39s studies supported the concept of victim precipitation Why did some people object to Amir39s conclusions Some most people objected Amir39s conclusion of some victims had an unconscious desire to be forcibly raped because the people against the study argued Amir39s conclusions to faults implicit in relying upon police accounts to a bunch of procedural errors and it was an illconceived theoretical notion Explain the four assumptions behind the victim precipitation argument The behavior of the victim can explain the criminal act The offender becomes activated only when a victim emits certain signals A victims behavior is necessary and suf cient to ca use a criminal act The intent of the victim can be gauged by the victimization incident What does Curtis gain by merging victim precipitation with offender responsibility in Table 15 of the textbook Curtis gains the separation of victimoogy39 and 39criminoogy39 creating the term and study of general victimology What is quotgeneral victimologyquot and how does it represent a new approach Created by Mendelsohn the aim of general victioogy was to quotin vestigate the ca uses of victimization in search of effective remedies Mendelsohn contented that a focus on just criminal victimization was too narrow Using Figure 11 of the textbook what four broad questions does general victimology raise Study of the de nitions of victims Study of the application of these de nitions Study of the victims reaction Study of the societal response How does quotcritical victimologyquot represent a different approach Critical victimology is quotan attempt to examine the wider social context in which some versions of victimology have become more dominant than others and also to understand how those versions of victimology are interwoven with questions of policy response and serve delivery to crime victims quot Some things this asks is ho wwh ywha twho de nes certain situations as criminal What was the importance of the victim movement to academic victimology Started legal reforms created more academic journals started the National Organization for Victim Assistance started the World Society of Victimology started the American Society of Victimology and changed college courses in the criminologycriminal justice elds What movements led to the rise of concern over victim rights The Women 5 Movement Children 5 Rights the growing crime problem and Victim Compensation movement Who was Hans von Hentig Hentig wrote quotThe Criminal and His Victim This book introduced the 39criminal victim dyad 39 Whats the 39criminalvictim dyad39 Focuses on the dynamics what transpires between the two parties rather than the outcome Who was Beniamin Mendelsohn He was named the 39Father of Victimology39 and coined the term victimology Who was Stephen Schafer He wrote 39The Victim and His Criminal 39 his book played on Hans von Hentig39s book title This was signi cant because he used the term functiona responsibility39 in place of victim precipitation Who was Menachem Amir What major factors did he nd in his victim precipitated rape study Amir was a student of Marvin Wolfgang and he wrote Patterns of Forcibe Rape In his study he replica ted Wolfgang 39s methodology Major factors he found were Alcohol consumption Wearing revealing or seductive clothing Using risque language Have a bad reputation Being in the wrong place at the wrong time What are the Four areas of emphasis that Victimologists study Creation of de nitions of victims Application of these de nitions Post victimization behavior Systems for dealing with victims Chapter 2 Study Notes 1Name three major data sources researchers use to measure the level of crime UCR NIBRS NORC Surveys 2 What was the original purpose behind developing the Uniform Crime Reports UCR The UCR was initially developed by the International Association of Chiefs of Police before being taken over by the FBI Its purpose was to be a mechanism by which police departments in different jurisdictions could exchange relevant information about crime 3 Give three advantages associated with the UCR 1 Provides standardized crime de nitions making it possible to draw comparisons across different times and jurisdictions 2 Important data about crimes are compiled annually from jurisdictions throughout the country 3 Gathers large amounts of information and details about the Index Crimes 4 Give three disadvantages associated with the UCR 1 The UCR overlooks the 39dark gure of crime 2 Heavily relies on the hierarchy rule 3 Offers little information on victims and offenders the data is primarily focused on more serious offenses committed by the criminals 5 List the UCR Part I Index Offenses Homicide Forcible Rape Robbery Aggravated assault Burglary Larceny Motor vehicle theft Arson NQP PWN 6 What is the quotdark gure of crimequot The crimes that occur that are not reported to the police 7 Why is the quotdark gure of crimequot so important This is so important because it proves the UCR grossy underreports the true level of crime in society 8 What is the quothierarchy rulequot This rule dictates only one offense is recorded when multiple offenses occur at the same time It is usually the most serious offense 9 What is NIBRS quotA new and imporved UCR a more detailedstrict version of the UCR reports 10 What advantages does NIBRS hold for the study of victimization In comparison to the UCR 1 the NIBRS collects detailed information of 22 categories of offenses rather than just the eight Index Offenses 2 Doesn t abide by the hierarchy rule reports all offenses that occur instead of just one 3 NIBRS collects 53 data elements for each crime incidentincluding data on the victim like victim offender relationship injuries property loss location number of victims and offenders etc 11 What is a victimization survey A way of gathering information on crimes not involving police reports or other of cial information Victimization surveys entail contacting people and asking them if they ve been victims of crimes not reported to the police 12 How many generations of victim surveys are there to date To date there are four generations of victimization surveys 13 How did the researchers conduct the NORC survey Sponsored by the National Opinion Research Center and Ennis they targeted 10000 households in the United States The interviewers asked participants to report on incidents that happened to them during the last year Then the interviewer sought more detailed information on the two most recent and most serious offenses 14 Compare and contrast NORC and UCR crime rates contained in Table 2 4 of your textbook In comparison the UCR NORC surveys showed that the majority of crimes not reported to the police were Rape Burglary and Larceny over 50 Homicide Auto theft and Robbery were the most reported to the police 15 What major contributions did the NORC survey make The NORC survey unearthed 19 times as many violent episodes and 22 times more property offenses than of cial crime stats had logged 16 What does sample size have to do with the NORC ndings Some nonbeievers in NORC claim the ratio of of cial crime reports to victimization surveys was off balance They say there was twice as much crime than what the police acknowledged was based on a very small number of victim survey accounts 17 Did the NORC study have any shortcomings 18 Explain how telescoping could affect a victim survey Telescoping takes place when respondents mistakeny bring criminal events that occurred outside the time frame into the survey period This could affect a survey because the data is not accurate 19 What role does memory decay play in a victim survey Memory decay is when the respondents were in fact victimized within the given time frame but forgot the event and did not provide the correct answer to the question asked by the researcher 20 Do telescoping and memory decay balance each one another It is lucky if telescoping and memory decay balance one another out however they rarely do causing the survey information to be inaccurate 21 What is a reverse record check It is a way to check victims against police records as a way to assess the degree to which a respondent con rms offense characteristics that appear in the of cial les A reverse record check starts by locating crime victim names in police les then contacting these people and administering a victim survey to them 22 What was learned from the reverse record check strategy The re verse record check strategy re vealed that memory decay grew more problematic as the time period increased 23 How do forward record checks work A forward record check operates when a researcher asks respondents in a victim survey whether they had contacted the police about the incident given in the victimization survey and then the researcher would check through of cial records for the report 24 What was learned from the forward record check strategy Some things learned when conducting the forward record check strategy was that about l3rd of the victims who said they led a police report did not However when the researchers did nd the matching les they were very very similar There was also evidence that telescoping could produce major distortions unless speci c steps were taken to counteract this tendency 25 What are the three assumptions behind the record check strategy 1 Police incident records are the appropriate benchmark against which to assess victim accounts 2 Record check studies can only deal with situations that have come to the attention of the record keeper 3 Crime victims are a very mobile group whose frequent address changes make recontacting diffucut 26 What is a quotpanel designquot Panel design surveys survey the same group of households or respondents at regular intervals over a period of time 27 What is quotboundingquot and why is it important Bounding is when the rst survey serves as the calendar reference point for the second the second for the third and so on This can eliminate any obvious repetition in the events that victims report more accurate recall and less telescoping in a siX month time frame than over a year time frame 28 What is the difference between a quotselfrespondentquot and a quothousehold respondentquot A self respondent is a person who reports victimization incidents for himherself A household respondent relays information about crimes committed against all members of his or her household 29 Are there any problems with relying upon household respondents for victimization information Self respondents reported more personal crimes and experienced fewer recall problems than did household respondents 30 Explain four things that researchers learned from the second generation surveys 1 It was found that more speci c questions elicited more accurate information and better recall than did very general questions about prior victimization 2 Shorter recall periods such as six months or less signi cantly limited the problems of telescoping and memory decay 3 Bounding the time period by some concrete event helped to limit the problem of telescoping 4 Interviewing individuals themselves about their victimization experiences was preferable to asking a household respondent about the experiences of others 31 What is the quotmoverstayer problemquot A burden that confronted the NCS the mover sta yer probem happened when the sampling of respondents was built on the residence not the individual It was assumed that the impact of relocation upon victimization estimates and the comparability of stable versus changes residences were minimal 32 What major problems did business victimization surveys face The sample of 15000 businesses was too small to project reliable estimates and the costs of the survey were not commensurate with the potential payoff 33 How does the fourth generation of victim surveys represent an improvement over earlier efforts In the fourth generation things improved include the accuracy of responses identifying information by subgroups adding new questions to tap different dimensions of crime and victim responses and making the data more useful for researchers 34 What is a quotscreen questionquot Screen questions are those inquiries that probe possible victimization experiences 35 Why are screen questions valuable Screen questions are valuable because its been suggested that they could result increased reports of crime by prodding the memory of respondents and providing clearer de nitions of criminal victimization 36 Give an example of a screen question quotDid any incidents of this type happen to you How many times Other than what you ve already mentioned did you have something stolen from you At home or atnear a friends housequot Etc 37 What is a quotgrayarea eventquot A gray area event pertains to a victimization that doesn t conform to the usual common stereotype 38 What is a supplement survey An extra survey given to make sure all information is accurate 39 What is the International Crime Victims Survey ICVS A category of crime victimization surveys that includes questions on political corruption hate crimes slave trade and other topics 40 What does a comparison of the number of crimes reported in the NCVS with the number of crimes reported in the UCR tell us In 2011 there was almost 23 million crimes committed according to victimization surveys However in the UCR only half of that number was reported This tells us people reveal to interviewers incidents that have not come to the attention of the police It also shows from the researcher standpoint to rely more on victimization surveys rather than of cial reports 41 What do the numbers in Table 27 mean The numbers in the table represent the percent of crimes of each category that was reported to the police 42 What does the information in Table 28 convey regarding victim offender relationships In this table the highest percentage of victims of violent crimes committed in 2008 were either acquaintances with their attacker or the attacker was a stranger 43 What do the terms quotvictim recidivismquot or quotrepeat victimizationquot mean Victim recidivismrepeat victimization can be de ned as the repeated occurrence of crime involving either the same victim or the same location An example is domestic violence 44 What does quotseries victimizationquot mean A series victimization is de ned as six or more similar but separate crimes which the victim is unable to recall individually or describe in detail to an interviewer 45 What is the difference between prevalence and incidence data Prevalence data refers to the number of individuals who experience victimization over a period of time Incidence data represents the total number of offenses that are reported during the same period 46 What is a quothot spotquot Hot spots are small places in which the occurrence of crime is so frequent that it is high y predictable 47 What does quotrisk heterogeneityquot mean Also called ag explanation suggests that the prior victimization or some other factor identi es the victim or location as an appropriate target for further victimization 48 How does quotevent dependencyquot help explain repeat victimization Event dependency refers to situations in which the same offender commits another offense based on the past experiences with that victim or location This helps to explain repeat victimization because if the offender knows the victim was an easy target they will continuously keep committing crimes


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