ANTH 1500 Week 1 notes
ANTH 1500 Week 1 notes ANTH 1500
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Parker on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1500 at Western Michigan University taught by Machicek in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Race, Biology, and Culture in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Some Terms Biological determinism concept that phenomena including various aspects of behavior are associated with biological traits Polytypic referring to species composed of populations that differ with regard to the expression of one or more traits lnterspeci c between species refers to variation beyond that seen within the same species to include additional aspects seen between two different species lntraspeci c within species refers to variation seen within the same species Macroevolution changes produced only after many generations such as the appearance of a new species Do human quotracesquot exist Human populations have not been around long enough to have developed into biological races Early human classi cation into races have been based on phenotype manifest biologyappearance skin color etc Anthroooloov and Science CH 1 What is anthropology The development of natural science and the process of the scienti c method Race is a cultural context not biological Anthrooolooical Persbective Comparison of culture through space and time Holism study of whole human condition both biological and cultural Anthropologycomparative and holistic study of humankind Anthropology as a Comparative Field Today39s cultures Ethnographers or cultural anthropologists Cultures that existed in the past Archaeologists Related species of the hominin family and other nonhuman primates Biological Anthropologists Four Fields of Anthropology Culturalcomparative study of all aspects of living human behavior Linguisticcomparative study of language origins and acquisition Language as foundation of cultures use of symbols Biologicalcomparative study of the biological aspects of humans Evolution and variation both past and present Archaeologycomparative study of the material remains of past cultures Reconstruct past human behavior Four Fields are linked bv the Concept of 39culture39 Sociocultural anthropology all aspects are learned symbolic shared and integrated from language to technology to kinship Linguistics study of language by which culture is sharedlearned Archaeology constructs the cultures of the past Biological anthropology asks how many humans have the capacity for culture in the rst place History of Anthropology Boaz What is Biological Anthropology The study of human biological evolution and biocultural variation Two key concepts 1 All humans are a product of their evolutionary history 2 All humans are a product of their individual life history Sub elds of Biological Anthropology Paleoanthropology study of human evolution using primarily fossil evidence Primatology study of nonhuman living primates Molecular anthropology genetic study of the evolutionary links between human populations ancient modern and with other species Human Biology morphological or genetic study of modern human variation and adaptation Forensic anthropology applied study of human remains in a legal context osteological analyses Bioarchaeology integrated study of human skeletal remains in archaeological context The Emeroence of Natural Science as a Discipline Plato 427347 BC Notion of ideal forms Fixed types which never change Variation in form is due to imperfect copy of ideal Variation unimportant no real change Theories Prior to Evolution Theory of Special Creation Species are immutableunchanged through time and independent of one another All species were created independently by God or a divine presence as recently as 6000 years ago Theory of Spontaneous Generation New living organisms appear suddenly when there are suitable conditions Some lifeforms arise spontaneously According to ancient Greeks the Great Chain of Being quotexplainedquot hierarchical structure of life All life forms classi ed in terms of their relative closeness to God JusU edinequaH es Creationism God formed the world and all its life forms The date of Earth39s creation was recent Earth unchanged since the Biblical ood Archbishop James Ussher 15801655 Calculated the age of Earth using the Bible Creation occurred on Sunday October 23rd 4004 BC What did these traditional views have in common Static unchanging world A hierarchy of types with humans at the top Intelligent design by a divine creator 19th C argument suggesting that the presence and complexity of all living things proved that life was designed by some type of divine intelligence Darwin ideas are canter to this due to his observations of the many imperfect forms we see in nature ex Flightless birds Intelligent design argues that some organisms have complex traits that are characterized by irreducible complexity Has failed as a valid scienti c theory because it cannot be tested Supreme Court case Kitzmiller v Dover Area School District in 2005 ruled that it could not be taught in public schools as it is a religious doctrine and would violate the First Amendment Intelligence Design failed attempt at a modern scienti c theory Scienti c Revolution First concept for vaccinations was developed inoculation injecting a gem into a body to create immunity 1608 telescope was inventeddesign was improved by Galileo 15905 microscope was invented Barometer early 16005 measured air pressure Thermometer 1611 chemical and medical studies Air pump Robert Boyle Age of Discoverv Unexpected biological diversity found New plants and animals needed integration into the European worldview Before Darwin Common views Earth39s young Species divinely created Species immutable Emerging scienti c views Earth39s od Earth39s surface has changed over time Plants and animals have changed Geology study of Earth Paleontology study of fossils Taxonomy and Systematics study of classi cation and relationships of organisms Demography study of populations Evolutionary Biology study of organisms and their changes over time Scienti c Method Modern Scienti c World View The universe is understandable The universe is a vast single system in which the Basic Rules Are Everywhere the Same Scienti c ideas are subject to change Scienti c knowledge is durable Science cannot provide complete answers to all questions Science Demands Evidence The validity of scienti c claims is settled by referring to observations of phenomena Therefore scientists concentrate on getting accurate data Science How we know what we know Science a questiondriven evidencebased understanding of the natural world Scienti c method formulate hypothesis coect date experiment draw conclusion based on observation if the hypothesis stands up to testing a theory can be formulated Scienti c Theorv NOT simply a guess Has been tested and supported by repeated testing using scienti c method Used as a model to describe andor explain phenomena Subject to further revision with more tests Biology theory of evolution germ theory Physics big bang theory theory of relativity Ways to Express Hypothesis Suggest possible events Suggest relationship between speci c exposure and healthrelated event Suggest causeeffect relationship Science how we know what we know Origin of bipedalism Darwin39s hypothesis Environmental change Freed hands for tool use Data Upright walking evolved in forest habitats Stone tools millions of years later Hypothesis rejected Science and Religion Science seeks natural not supernatural explanations for how the world works Science is a way of knowing about the natural world not a foundation for philosophical views Scienti c Laws and Theories The biggest difference between a law and a theory is that a theory is much more complex and dynamic A law governs a single action or situation whereas a theory explains an entire group of related phenomena The Experimental Method Differs from nonexperimental methods in that it involves the deliberate manipulation of one variable while trying to keep all other variables constant Criticism of Science Argued that it is biased by Western Culture Science has been used to advance certain agendas political commercial personal etc Pseudosciences affecting the credibility of actual science these are not testable Pseudoscience of Euoenics Pseudoscience a collection of beliefs or practices mistakenly regarded as being based on scienti c method The practice of trying to in uence human heredity by encouraging the transmission of 39desirable39 characteristics and discouraging the transmission of 39undesirable ones The fall of Eugenics Why it s not a science Failed to recognize complexity of human traits Disregarded environmentalsocial factors Skewed results Linked undesirable traits with racial and ethnic groups Disregard of effects on genetic diversity Flawed IQ testing A pseudoscience basically a social movement Legacy of Eugenics Distrust of science Fears regarding genetic testing and genetic research Ethic as a central component in scienti c research Darwin and the Evolutionarv Theorv CH 2 Theory of evolution by natural selection Key theory in biology Jointly proposed by Darwin and Wallace 1858 Darwin described evolution as descent with modi cation Ancestral species changed over time to become modern species Evolutionchange in genetic characteristics allele frequency in population over time Time in Perspective Evolution of Life Theory of Special Creation Species are immutableunchanged through time and independent of one another All species were created independently by God or a divine presence as recently as 6000 years ago Theory of Spontaneous Generation New living organisms appear suddenly when there are suitable conditions Some lifeforms rise spontaneously According to ancient Greeks the Great Chain of Being quotexplainedquot hierarchical structure of life All life forms classi ed in terms of their relative closeness to God Jus edinequa es Historical Background Paleontology Robert Hooke 16351703 Fossil wood was once alive Georges Cuvier 17691832 Organisms can go extinct Different fossils in different geological strata Naturalistzoologist established the fact that extinction occurs but explained through Catastrophism catastrophes wiped out odler forms God created new ones A vocal component of evolution Taxonomy and Systematics Carolus Linnaeus 17071778 Naming system for all living organisms Clustered hierarchy Living things are grouped according to similarities KINGDOM few similarities largest number of organisms PHYLUM CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES most similarities smallest number of organisms Binomial nomenclature scienti c names are Genus and Species Ex Homo sapien Linnaeu39s Taxonomv Kingdom Animalsorganisms able to move on their own Phylum chordatesanimals with a backbone Class mammalschordates with fur hair and milk glands Order primatesmammals with collar bones and grasping ngers Family Hominidsprimates with relatively frat faces and 3D vision Genus Homohominids with upright posture and large brains Species Homo sapienswith a high forehead and thin skull bones Geology James Hutton 17261797 Scottish geologist Geological strata Uniformitarianism An example Grand Staircase Utah lf 001 meter is observed being deposited each year then one meter of deposit1000 years Thus a 400 meter deposit such as this is 400000 years old The theory that changes in the Earth39s crust during geological history have resulted from the action of continuous and uniform processes Steno39s Law of Superposition Nicolaus Steno 16381686 Law of Superposition Relative Dating Stratigraphic Correlation Lyell 17971875 Antiquity of the Earth Reliance on natural rather than supernatural causes to explain geological change Lamarckianism JeanBaptiste Lamarck 17441829 Adaptation through inheritance of acquired traits Given Earth is very old and constantly changing Thus organisms must adapt to this changing environment Hypothesis changes that occur within the lifetime of an animal are inherited by offspring Lamarck39s 4 laws for evolutionwhat39s wrong 1 The quotlife forcequot tends to increase the volume of the body and to enlarge its parts 2 New organs can be produced in a body to satisfy a new need 3 Organs develop in proportion to their use 4 Changes that occur in the organs of an animal are transmitted to that animal s offspring Demography Malthus 17661834 39An Essay on the Principle Population Malthus stated the populations of the world would increase in geometric proportions while the food resources available for them would increase only in arithmetic proportions The tendency for populations to increase at a faster rate than resources would lead to a quotstruggle for existencequot As a result of the competition for resources species that were better adapted would be able to survive reproduce and leave offspring Over many generations this would entail a 39natural selection39 where populations and species would change adapt in response to their environment Summary concepts crucial to the development of the evolutionary theory Variation and similarity within and among species Extinction of species Uniformitarianism age of Earth Adaptation Population growth and the struggle for existence Darwin and the Voyage of the HMS Beagle 1831 the HMS Beagle set sail from England on a 4 year surveying mission The Beagle spent 5 weeks in the Galapagos carefully charting the archipelago quotDescent with Modificationquot Why did different species live on different islands How did this happen Natural Selection Common Ancestry Adaptive radiation Evolution Evolution is not progressive No such thing as quothigherquot or quotlowerquot organisms Instead more ancient and less ancient with different adaptations that allow the groups to thrive in different environments What Did Darwin Do From Lyell and Hutton Earth old gradualism From Cuvier fossils resemble living forms From Malthus ideas about reproduction populations and variation From Linnaeus and Lamarck species related species can change Alfred Russel Wallace 18231913 Codiscoverer of the theory of evolution by natural selection The Wallace Line is the invisible boundary running through the center of Indonesia and separating two entirely different animal worlds Theorv of Evolution bv Natural Selection Darwin and Wallace 1858 Species are related to one another and change over time Thus species existing today descended from other preexisting species Natural selection acts on individuals and individuals with certain favorable characteristics will survive and reproduce more If the advantageous characteristics are heritable traits may be passed to offspring thus leading to change in population over time 1 The existence of inherited variation in natural populations and species 2 Populations tend to increase much faster than available resources 3 A struggle for existence occurs between individuals in all populations 4 Natural selection leads to genetic changes in populations adaptation to different environments and ultimately to the origin of new species The adjustment in the t between organisms and environment as evolutionary adaptation or simply adaptation Adaptation is the root concept that grew into Darwin39s theory of natural selection Natural selection is the mechanism that explains how things change adaptation explains Whythey do The Flaw in Darwin39s Theory The aw his explanation for how traits were passed from one generation to the next This occurred through 39blended inheritance This was criticized by other scientists as it failed to explain the disappearance of some traits over time and was dif cult to test Mechanism of Inheritance Gregor Mendel 18221884 Laws of inheritance Discrete units genes Different versions alleles Dominant and recessive Evidence for Evolution Antibiotic resistant bacteria fossils anatomy embryology biochemistry etc TVpes of Evolution Two ideas of how new species develop Gradualism lots of small changes in DNA over long periods of time Punctuated equilibrium fewer larger changes over long period of time Fossil Record Used to observe early life Incomplete only certain components of a species fossilize in speci c types of soil Like a puzzleoverall pattern Extinction of species Fossil record provides evidence for species unlike any living species Darwinevidence that species are dynamic and change Change over time Limitations of the Fossil Record Key stages in the record for past life are missing because 1 Paleontologists have searched for fossils in only some placeshave not discovered all the fossilbearing rocks 2 Fossils have been preserved in some places and not others 3 Rock sequences containing fossils are not complete in all places Anatomy Similarity in structures suggests relationships between animal species Homologous and analogous structures Vestigial structures whale pelvis appendix in humans wisdom teeth Homologous and Analogous structures Homologous structures homosame alike because they are closely related Ex Birdbat wings Analogous structures not closely related but same function Ex Birdinsect wings Race Bioloov and Culture Evolution and Natural Selection Micro and Macroevolution Natural Selection 1 There is variation in traits 2 There is differential reproduction 3 There is heredity 4 The end result Arti cial Selection Arti cial selection offers a clue to how natural selection operates Arti cial selection humans determine which heritable traits are desirable in plants and animals Natural selection quotnatural environmentquot Replaces humans as the selective agent Reproductive Isolation and Species Gene pool all the genetic info in a breeding population Reproductive isolation mechanism that prevents 2 populations from interbreeding Species groups of reproductively isolated organisms The Gene Pool Members of a species can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Species have a shared gene pool Gene pool all of the alleles of all individuals in a population DNAMolecular Basis of Evolution Traits coded by genes Genes on chromosomes Chromosomes made of DNA DNA structure discovered in 1953 Watson Crick Franklin DNAgtRNAgtProteingtTrait Mutations MAY cause changes in the production of proteins New traits can be passed to offspring May be helpful harmful or cause no change at all How do new soecies beoin Genotype the set of genes responsible for a particular trait Phenotype the physical expression of that trait Ex Color of hair cury or straight eye color Mutations can change a population If a new trait is advantageous Those with trait will have more successful offspring than those without it Over long periods of time Populations gt new species Fishgt with lungsgt move onto landgtreptilegthuman Speciesgroups that are so similar they can breed with one another and produce VIABLE capable of reproducing offspring Species a group of individuals that actually or potentially interbreed in nature Speciation A lineagesplitting event that produces two or more separate species Ex Geographic isolation Formation of new species One species may split into 2 or more species A species may evolve into a new species Adaptive Radiation An event in which a lineage rapidly diversi es with the newly formed lineages evolving different adaptations 4 forces of evolution 1 Mutation a change in an organism39s DNA can be bene cial neutral or harmful a Mutations can be transmitted in gametes to offspring 2 Natural selection success in reproduction based on heritable traits being passed to relatively more offspring Darwin inheritance a Cause ADAPTATION of populations 3 Genetic Drift the change in the gene pool of a small population clue to chance a Exogamous and endogamous b Dunkers i Discourages outside marriage ii Starting size28 iii Drift in blood type frequencies c Factors that cause genetic drift i Bottleneck effect 1 A drastic reduction in population ex volcanoes and earthquakes 2 Reduced genetic variation 3 Smaller population may not be able to adapt to new selection pressures ii Founder effect 1 Occurs when a new colony is started by a few members of the original population 2 Reduced genetic variation 3 May led to speciation 4 Gene ow aka admixture is genetic exchange due to the migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations a Populations separated by great distances or by great geographic barriers have less opportunity for gene ow Reproductive Fitness Fitness describes how good a genotype or organism is at leaving offspring Relative to how good others are at it Fitness combines the main components of natural selection survival mate nding reproduction into one concept A genotype s tness includes its ability to survive nd a mate produce offspring and ultimately leave its genes in the next generation Sexual Selection When natural selection acts on mate nding and reproductive behavior sometimes by extreme measures Sexual selection is often powerful enough to produce features that are harmful to the individual39s survival Sexual Dimorphism The difference in appearance between males and females of the same species Color shape size and structure that are caused by the inheritance of one or the other sexual pattern in the genetic material Evolutionarv theorv in summarv Evolution is change over time Not individuals but populations In EVERY species there is variation in individuals among members of that population Individuals in a population show differential reproductive success Over time input of new variation into the population can change the average characteristics of a species and can split species into two Nature selects for favorable variations This is the driving engine of evolutionary change
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