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Biology 1103K - Week 1 Notes

by: Megan Smith

Biology 1103K - Week 1 Notes Biol 1103k

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Biol 1103k > Biology 1103K Week 1 Notes
Megan Smith
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Introductory biology I
David blaustein

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 1 of biology. It hits all the main points and definitions in the book!
Introductory biology I
David blaustein
Class Notes
Biology, Biology 1103K




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Smith on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1103k at Georgia State University taught by David blaustein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Introductory biology I in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
CHAPTER 11 WHAT IS LIFE 11 WHAT IS LIFE Biology Comes from the Greek root bio meaning quotlifequot and logy meaning the study ofquot i Life if defined as Organisms acquire and use materials and energy Organisms actively maintain organized complexity Organisms perceive and respond to stimuli 19 Organisms grow e Organisms reproduce f Organisms collectively have the capacity to evolve Hint use page 3 to try to explain how the water ea has the properties of life ii Cell The basic unit oflife iii Parts of a cell a Membrane plasma membrane separates the cellform its surroundings b Nucleus suspended within a uid environment c Cell Wall outer most layer B Organisms Acquire and Use Materials and Energy i The Energy that sustains life comes from the sunlight ii Photosynthesis Photosynthetic organisms trap and store energy for their own use Energy stored in their bodies also powers all other forms of life C Organisms Actively maintain Organized Complexity i homeostasis Organisms maintain relatively constant internal conditions D Organisms Perceive and Respond to Stimuli i Organisms sense and respond to internal and external environmental stimuli ii Sensory organs in animals can detect and respond to external stimuli such as light sound chemicals etc iii Plants and bacteria also respond to stimuli Ex Plants grow towards light E Organisms grow i All organisms become larger overtime ii Growth requires organism obtain material and energy from the outside world F Organisms Reproduce i Reproduction happens in a variety of ways a Dividing in half b Producing seeds c Bearing live young d Laying eggs ii Offspring inherit instructions from their parents for producing and maintaining their particular forms of life called deoxyribonucleic acid DNA G Organisms collectively have the capacity to evolve i Evolution The process by which modern organisms have descended from earlier and different forms of life Resulted from changes in DNA within populations ii Population A group of the same type of organism inhabiting the same area 12 WHAT IS EVOLUTION Evolution Explains why Earth has such a huge diversity of life Accounts for the remarkable similarities among different types of organisms A Three Natural Processes Underlie Evolution i Evolution is an automatic and inevitable outcome of three natural occurrences a Differences in DNA among members ofa population b Inheritances of these differences by their offspring c Natural selection i The increased ability of offspring that inherit certain forms and combinations of DNA molecules to survive and reproduce B Mutations are the Original Source of Difference in DNA i Genes Segments ofDNA the basic units ofheredity before a cell divides all ofits DNA must be copied so its genes can be passed along ii Mutations cells sometimes make errors while copying results from damaged DNA 0 ultraviolet rays from sunlight o toxic chemicals from cigarette smoke C Some mutations are inherited Helps offspring to survive and reproduce more successfully than those lacking the mutation i Some Inherited Mutations Help Individuals Survive and Reproduce Natural Selection 0 Organisms with certain inherited traits survive and reproduce better than others in a given environment Adaptions 0 Structures physiological processes or behaviors that help an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment 0 Help organisms escape predators capture prey reach sunlight or accomplish other feats that help ensure their survival and reproduction Extinction 13 i ii iii iv vi vii o The complete elimination of a form of life HOW DO SCIENTISTS STUDY LIFE A Life can be studied at Different Levels Elements Atom Substances that can not be broken down or converted to simpler substances The smallest particle ofan element that retains all the properties of that element Example of Element and Atom A diamond is a form of the element carbon The smallest possible unit of a diamond is an individual carbon atom Molecule Tissues Atoms may combine in specific ways to form molecules 0 Example one oxygen atom can combine with two hydrogen atoms to form a molecule of water Cells of a similar types may combine to form tissues in multicellular organisms Different types of tissues in turn unite to form functional units called organs such as the entire stomach Organ System The grouping of two or more organs that work together to perform a specific body function Combine within complex multicellular organism to carry out the activities of life Levels of organization also extend to groups of organisms W R9 959 Atom smallest Molecule Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Multicellular organism Population Species j Community k Ecosystem I Biosphere largest viii Population A group of organisms of the same type the same species that live in a well defined area where they can interact and interbreed with one another ix Species Consists of all organisms that are similar enough to interbreed no matter where they are found x Community Formed by populations of different species that live in the same area and interact with one another xi Ecosystem Consists of a community and the nonliving environment that surrounds it xii Biosphere Includes all life on Earth and the nonliving portions of Earth that support life B Biologists Classify Organisms Based on Their Evolutionary Relationships i Domains Evolutionary relatedness placed animals into three major groups or domains These classifications re ect fundamental differences among their cell types Bacteria Archaea c E ukarya ii Eukarya Includes a diverse collection of organism collectively known as protists and three major subdivisions called Kingdoms iii Kingdoms a Fungi b Plants c Animals iv The classification of a given organism into a domain and kingdom is based on three characteristics a The organisms cell type simple or complex b Whether the organism is unicellular single cell or multicellular composed ofmany cells c How the organism acquired its energy C Cell type distinguished the Bacteria and Archaea from the Eukarya i Plasma membrane Thin sheet of molecules surrounding all cells ii Organelles Structures specialized to carry out specific functions such as helping to synthesize large molecules digesting food molecules or obtaining energy iii Two fundamentally different types of cells a Eukaryotic b Prokaryotic iv Eukaryotic Calls are extremely complex and contain a variety of organelles many of which are surrounded by membranes All members are composed of eukaryotic cells v Nucleus A membraneenclosed organelle that contains the cell s DNA vi Prokaryotic Cells are far simpler and generally smaller than eukaryotic cells Lack organelles enclosed by membranes DNA is not confined in the nucleus Most abundant forms of life are found in the domains Bacteria and Archaea which consist entirely of prokaryotic cells D Multicellularity Occurs Only Among the Eukarya i Members of the domains Bacteria and Archaea are unicellular ii Multicellular organisms are found among the Eukarya E The Eukarya Acquire Energy in Different Ways i Plants are autotrophs ii Animals are heterotrophs Ingest eat their own food iii Fungi are heterotrophic Absorb their food iv Autotroph Self feeding Acquire their energy through photosynthesis V Heterotroph Other feeding Cannot photosynthesize and so they rely on the bodies of other organisms for food F Biologists Use the Binomial System to Name Organisms i The smallest two categories a Genus b Species ii Species Consists of nearly identical organisms that can interbreed italicized i Genus Includes many different species with similar characteristics Capitalized and italicized iv Binomial System Provides a unique scientific name for each form of life Means two bi names nomial which consist of the genus and species 14 WHAT IS SCIENCE Science Systematic inquiry observation and experiment into the origins structure and behavior of our living and non living surrounding A Science is Based on the Principal That All Events Have Natural Causes i Spontaneous Generation To believe that life arose spontaneously B The Scientific Method Is an Important Tool of Scientific Inquiry i Scientific Method 6 interrelated items Begins with an observation of a specific phenomenon Leads to a question What caused thisquot After hard thought a hypothesis is formed o A proposed explanation for the phenomenon often based on limited evidence Then lead to a prediction 0 The expected outcome of testing if the hypothesis is correct Experiments are done to test the hypothesis A conclusion is reached that either supports or refutes the hypothesis Observation b Question c Hypothesis d Prediction e Experiment f Conclusion C Biologists Test Hypotheses Using Controlled Experiments i ii iii iv vi Two types of situations are established a Control Variable Control Situation All possible variables are held constant Variable The factor in an experiment that is manipulated to test the hypothesis Valid Scientific Experiment Must be repeatable by the researcher and by other scientist The researcher performs multiple repetitions of the experiment Francesco Redi s Experiment Meat and Flies Spontaneous Generation Page 12 Malte Andersson s Experiment Widowbird Tail Feathers Page 13 D Scientific Theories Have Been Thoroughly Tested i ii Scientific Theory General and reliable explanation of important natural phenomena that has been developed through extensive and reproducible observations and experiments Natural Law Best describes a scientific theory Basic principal derived from the study of nature that has never been disproven by scientific theory iii Cell Theory That all living organisms are composed of cells Fundamental to the principals of Biology E Scientific Theories Involve Both inductive and Deductive Reasoning i Inductive Reasoning Process of creating a broad generalization based on many observations that support it and none that contradict it ii Deductive reasoning Starts with a wellsupported generalization such as a scientific theory Uses it to generate hypotheses about how a specific experiment or observation will turn out F Scientific Theories Are Formulated in Ways That Can Potentially Be Disproved i Scientists refer to basic principals These are called quottheoriesquot because theories have the potential to be disproved or falsified G Science is a Human Endeavor i Microbiologists Often study pure cultures A single type of bacterium grown in sterile covered dishes free from contamination by other bacteria and molds ii Fleming s Culture became contaminated with a mold a type of fungus called Penicillium Instead of discarding the dish Fleming looked at it carefully and observed that no bacteria were growing near the mold His experiment on page 15 H Knowledge of Biology Illuminated Life Some people believe science and new finding rob us of wonder and awe in the world Example studying how bee s pollinate increases out appreciation in the world


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