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Bio 102, Week 2

by: annazeberlein

Bio 102, Week 2 BIOL102

C of C
GPA 3.4
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard

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Notes for the week of 1/18-1/22
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by annazeberlein on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.

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Date Created: 01/24/16
Biology 102 Notes Week 2 Charles Darwin 0 Naturalist on HMS Beagle 18311836 0 Saw earthquake change topography o Beagle voyage Glyptodonts and armadillos Extinct glyptodonts resembled living armadillos What evidence do we have to support evolution 0 1 Direct evidence we can see evolution occurring arti cial selection pressures that are manmade man is choosing particular characteristics domestication of dogs 14000 years of arti cial selection natural selection in action 0 2 Biogeography the distribution of species species relationships 0 3 The Fossil Record order of appearance of species transition species 0 4 homologies similar characteristics due to shared ancestry comparative morphology comparing body characteristics 0 morphological divergence change through descendants o vestigial structures developmental leftovers has no function ex the tailbone coccyx on humans 0 don t confuse with analogous traits 0 similar structures no shared ancestry o morphological convergence evolved separately developmental homologies all vertebrates have pharyngeal pouches and postanal tails molecular homologies DNA RNA and proteins 0 Developmental genes homeotic genes controls placement of major structures Hox genes 0 Mutations key to evolution of morphological novelties or macroevolution Organizing species 0 Taxonomysystematics 0 Species grouped based on Fossil records Homologous traits Molecular characters Morphology Phylogenetic tree 0 Cladistics organizes species based on clades All species that share a set of characteristics Cladogram Processes of Evolution populations 0 a group of individuals of the same species in a speci ed area 0 natural selection acts on individuals 0 overall population changes 0 microevolution small scale genetic changes within a population gene pool all the genes within the population variation of genes or alleles based on sexual reproductionmutation microevolution terms alleles 0 alternative forms of genes genotype individuals alleles o homozygous same alleles o heterozygous different alleles phenotype expression of alleles allele frequencies abundance of allele types of a given gene 0 genetic equilibrium allele frequencies are static hardy Weinberg o a formula that functions as a baseline measurement for shifts in allele frequencies esp harmful ones 0 pquot2 2pq qquot2 1 measures allele frequencies in a non evolving population genetic equilibrium frequency of dominant alleles p frequency of recessive alleles q pquot2 homo dominant 2pq heterozygous qquot2 homo recessive hardy Weinberg conditions 0 1 very large population size 0 2 no gene ow 0 3 no mutations 4 random mating 5 no natural selection baseline to determine if microevolution is occurring ex allergy to phenyalanine PKU occurs in 1 of infants 0 1 qquot2 1q o pq1 o p99 o 2pq2 o microevolution shifting allele frequencies in a population caused by random nonadaptive events 0 mutation 0 gene ow 0 genetic drift natural selection gene ow migration physical ow of alleles intoout of a population limited gene ow genetic isolation led to distinct ethnicity continuous gene ow decreases genetic difference genetic drift changes in allele frequencies due to chance greater impact on small populations can cause a reduction in genetic diversity 0 allele xation or homozygosity one allele to choose from ip a coin 10 times How many times does the coin land on heads Should be around half Now ip a coin 4 times How many times does the coin land on heads now It should be more than half this is a small example this trend would be best shown with a larger population bottleneck effect 0 drastic reduction in population size due to severe pressure disease overhunting 0 decrease in gene pool diversity 0 allele xation 0 ex cheetahs reduce because of overhunting if a disease comes in the lack of allele diversity means that they will die off faster because they won t be able to adapt their genes Founder effect 0 Change in allele frequencies due to colonization by a few individuals 0 Build populations with a small gene pool in terms of the number of alleles that are available 0 Old amish 0 Higher incidence of dwar sm Polydactyly Holes in heart 0 Kentucky blue people 0 Isolated community with a small gene pool causing many people in this community to get the allele for blue skin literally genetic drift inbreeding reduces heterozygosity ex hemophilia opposite effect of inbreeding o heterozygote advantage balanced polymorphisms greater tness maintains genetic variation in a population natural selection 0 main method of adaptive evolution environmental pressure select for tness adaptations 0 patterns of natural selection directional chooses one extreme disruptive chooses both extremes stabilizing chooses intermediate the average trait o directional selection allele frequencies shift in one direction 0 stabilizing selection intermediate traits are favored o disruptive selection black bellied seed crackers Africa small beak large beak and average beak small beak had the best chance of eating seeds 0 natural selection for mating success sexual selection nonrandom matingmate choice maintains variation between the sexes sexual dimorphism intrasexual selection 0 male competition 0 males want to be the ones to reproduce female choice what leads to new species 0 Speciation origin of new species 1 isolation population split 0 no gene ow 2 divergence natural selection occurs independently 0 modes of speciation interruption of gene ow in a population 1 allopatric speciation physical splitting or barrier ends gene ow 0 the same species of squirrel on either side of the grand canyon 2 sympatric speciation no barrier species forms within the home range of the parent species causes nonrandom mating change in chromosome number polyploidy in plants rate of speciation how are separate species maintained 0 Species de ned groups of interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups 0 Prezygotic isolation Mating or zygote formation is prevented Behavioral isolation Courtship rituals and behaviors are unique to species Temporal or seasonal isolation Species breed at different times of day seasons or years Ecological isolation 0 Two species occupy different habitats and do not encounter one another or do so rarely Mechanical isolation Morphological difference prevent successful mating Mating attempted Gameteincompatibility Gametes cannot fuse due to molecular incompatibilities o Postzygotic isolation Takes affect after hybrid zygotes form Hybrid sterility horse x donkey mule Hybrid inviability Macroevolution o origin or new taxonomic groups 0 key innovations or novelties lungs limbs wings result from adaptive radiation 0 a burst of new species from a common ancestor o continental drift and extinctions re nement of preadaptations exaptations existing structure adapted for new purpose evolutionary novelties 0 ight o sight developmental gene mutations mutations in genes changed spatial patterns timing and rates of growth Population ecology study of populations population demographics 0 statistics size in numbers density number in given areas distribution age structure reproductive base population size and growth 0 in uences on growth immigration and emigration birth rates and death rates 0 zero population growth births deaths exponential population growth 0 optimal conditions for a constant reproductive rate ex e coli takes 30 minutes to reproduce ideal population growth 0 biotic potential theoretical maximum possible growth rate under optimal conditions 0 equal resources for all no pathogens or predators limits to growth 0 limiting factors function to increase death rates or decrease births 0 density dependent food resources pathogens predator prey relationships 0 density independent natural disasters


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