PSYS 416 Notes WEEK 2
PSYS 416 Notes WEEK 2 PSYS 416
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Taylor on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYS 416 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Kristin Ritchey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Cognitive Psychology 416 01112016 WEEK 1 Intro into Cognition What is cognition Acquiring storing transforming and using knowledge 0 Cognitive psych one perspective or one point of view 0 Why do people think or act the way they do 0 Applicationslmplications of how we gure this out Using mind tricks for storing information Learning and using memory to acquire knowledge Really comprehending and understanding it instead of just memorizing it Themes of Cognition Cognition is active 0 Even when we don t intend to use them we do They can be sub or unconscious thoughts Ex When we are asleep but we continue to dream Cognition is ef cientaccurate 0 When we speak we speak at a rate of approximately one word per half a second We chose one word at a time out of millions that we know and put them in order to communicate and convey our meaning 0 Cognitive processes are interrelated 0 When you are reading you aren t just reading You are studying imagery You are studying long term memory You are making decisions on how to say or pronounce the word 0 One task has many different processes within itself Smell triggering a memory using perception to recognize the smell and connect it to the memory 0 Cognitive processes are testable 0 Although the mind is something that we cannot touch or hold in our hands We nd ways to test it We have a challenging job to research and test the cognitive processes because they do not stand still once you nd them 0 IQ Tests or any kind of test in a class Memory Understanding The ability to use the material History of Cognition Early History 0 Ancient philosophers We have asked the same questions as the ancient philosophers As our roots we have a philosophical background For example What is the human mind and how does it work 0 Empiricists Locke vs Nativists Descartes Nurture vs Nature n Nurture environment a Nature in born qualities We are still trying to gure out these ancient questions and following in their footsteps o Wundt 1879 not the year he was born He established the rst psych lab in 1879 People didn t call themselves psychology at this time a They would all be interested in something underneath the psychology label but they called it something different a Wundt decided to get all of those ideas together and study it together in a lab Structuralism a He suggested that we should study the structure or the mind or how it is organized How are all of our thoughts and memories put together 0 What is the rst word that comes to mind when someone says quotcatquot Meow Now we have a little bit of knowledge to see how your brain is organized It s a very little test but it is a starting point 0 William James late 1800s One of Wundt s followers Functionalism a Different parts of the brain have different functions or different roles to play an in uence different parts of ourselves It is a good idea to make sure we look at the broader circle when we are researching or thinking about a certain topic a For example what else was going on in the late 1800s that might cause William James to be thinking about functionalism It was the start of the industrial revolution social and industrial 0 Around this time we also have Darwin talking about people changing and adapting overtime to t in their environment 0 William took that idea a little bit and came up with functionalism 20th Century 0 Behaviorism 19205 and 1960s 0 John Watson and BF Skinner Observable behavior only study actions that can be directly seen Cognitive psychology was put on hold during this time because you can t see the mind work Stimulus l Response n The Skinner boxquot Pigeon in a box and test different ways the bird reacts to a light or a noise 0 Can you train the bird to do certain tasks if a light or sound goes off Rewardspunishment to alter response a A lot of our actions are prompted by a reward or punishment n We learned a lot from the behavioral stage 0 The Cognitive Revolution 0 0 During this time psychologists start recognizing that we have to include mental processes to fully explain behavior They realized that what the behaviorists were doing was not enough to explain behavior They only focuses on the Stimulus l Response idea Now they started to ask Stimulus WHAT HAPPENS HERE Response You can carry out the same task or have the same stimulus but have a different response so what happens in the middle I For example a person s reaction to Donald Trump Some people love him and some people hate him What causes this revolution to come about Linguistics Noam Chomsky a He was pivotal in this revolution because he was able to show that this behaviorists way of explanation of behavior was not sufficient in explains how we use language as humans 0 Example when we are little around the age of 2 we started to speak in full sentences 0 During this time we still speak grammatically correct because we just copy what we hear 0 But when we turn 3 or 4 we realize that there is a reason why we have certain grammatical rules so we started saying we swammedquot or I rannedquot This has nothing to do with reward or punishment n Stimulus l Response does not explain such a complex behavior Cognitive Development Piaget a Big blow against the behaviorists I There must be a different way to study why these responses happen It is not just something you can touch or see It is cognitive Ulric Neisser s Cognitive Psychology 1967 a He takes credit for taking people and looking at all of the little subsections retention memory understanding of what we call cognitive psychologyquot today and put them all under one idea to make a sub eld of psychology Invention of the computer a Before this we hadn t been able to test cognitive results as well a Brain waves a Eye tracking I Gave us the technology that helped us study the mind and also gave us an analogy or comparison to the brain itself What is Cognitive Science 0 You can think of it has a combination of different elds 0 Cognitive psych o Neuroscience 0 Computer science Al 0 Philosophy 0 Anthropology sometimes stick their toes in o All of these together help us gure out how the mind works Perspectives in Cognitive Science 0 Information Processing you can look at the mind from many different perspectives 0 Mental processes are a lot like computer processes Brain hardware the physical aspect Mind software the part that tells the brain or computer how to do a certain task 0 Example 0 Signal Decision channel Signlg SEDEETWE l a FlllL il39ER limited capacity 3 1 39 Signal 12 and 3 l selective lter decision channel limited capacity l going forward Signals are what we see or recognize in our environment The selective lter helps us process what it is and what it means Decision channel decides why it is important and sends it out to the rest of the brain Real life example studying in the atrium you have to focus on your book but you smell the food and hear the people so you have to selectively focus on your book to make sure you get the information you need 0 Drawbacks of comparing your brain to a computer Only represents serial processing n It is good at describing cognitive processes that play out in a stepbystep process but that is not always how we think u Examples 0 Math problem 0 Recipe I Usually we are thinking about many things at once even if we are trying to think about one thing There are many distractions Only represents fast simple processes a Not that you can t use a computer analogy to describe more complex processes but it doesn t fully explain them in depth Connectionism o A good way to think about how our mind works is that we are constantly making connections 0 Mental processes occur in parallel quotspreading activationquot 0 O FIEURE 2 Th i l l39lil HI39LEE connections rm some of the individuals in gure Zl Tm1 Slighl errors in the mnne ions depicted in the original miquot this gum have been armclad in ihia var sininf From quotEmmiring Emma and Speci c HHDWIEEJEE From Stored Knowledge biquot SpEELF its E13 J L McEIEJJai39Id WE af ne Tiaracquot Anama Ermjemnrg r f39fjjf Cugmirfb39f Sci nr 39 n r m Cupyrigi39il WEE in J L ML lulland Reprinted by Emissiond The idea is that each of our thoughts that is represented in the smaller circles are all interconnected to each other even if they have separate subsections in our thought processes Think of the movie West Side Storyquot and the categories that we use to describe the characters Age School Occupation Name Single married divorced Jet or Shark When we collect information it automatically makes you think about how they are connected and what else connects to them that you have witnessed in your life time As soon as someone asks Do you know Ralphquot you automatically put him into categories that you remember He graduated from Jr High he is 15 years old and is a drug pusherquot Arti cial intelligence computers are starting to be programmed more like this but computers only know what you tell them to do Evolutionary o The mind in the product or result of a biological system that can evolve If our physical brain is changing and evolving over time it makes since that the thoughts change overtime as well We believe that our ways of thinking have served some kind of adaptive value maybe the way we think the way today has been the combination of survival tactics just like our bodies have adapted overtime Using the computer analogy we build faster computers that can do more tasks just like our brains have developed better and better overtime o What are examples of arguments against this theory If this was the case why would there still be suicide child abuse alcoholism car accidents We still think about stupid unproductive things It may be from experiences and what we have learned throughout history instead of a genetic evolution History repeats itself and we know this but sometimes we need to learn things on our own even though we see others fail at the same task Cognitive Psych s Big Contributions 0 1 Mental processes are grounded in our biology 0 But we are not determined by our biology o It is not just genetic it is combined with our environment to make up our processesit is not just nature orjust nurture it is both 0 2 The mind is not too complex to understand 0 People used to not believe in studying the mind as a life goal or as an occupation 0 Cognitive scientists have credit for bringing a lot of elds together to study the mind and gure out that it is not too complex to study WEEK 2 Perception There are things known and there are things unknown and in between are the doors of perceptionquot Aldous Huxley l Sensation amp Perception A Sensation receiving energy amp encoding as neural signals B We use the general term energy because it is vague enough to describe many different types of energy It can pertain to all of our senses Example Sound waves pertain to our hearing senses but not our visual senses C Perception interpretation of sensation Picture on BB COW The point of this picture is that it is ambiguous it was hard to tell what the picture was at rst Black and white images are being picked up by our visual sensors but some of us could not interpret the picture correctly That is the difference between sensation and perception We all have different ways of organizing perception F Your perception is your truth G We may have different perceptions of a movie that we see with a friend even though we have both go to the same movie Your friend may perceive it has a great movie and you might have hated it but you both had the same sensation of watching the movie just a different perception of it H Imagination in general is a good example Sometimes sensation is there but we perceive it unconsciously Sometimes sensation is not there at all imagination Sometimes sensation is misinterpreted It s not always black and white ll Visual Perception A Saccades aka saccadic eye movement Referring to the fact that our eyes are always moving Although we as though our eyes are always still there are actually constantly doing these little jerking motions called saccades The purpose of this is to give us little checks of our environment This allows us to make sure our environment is safe around us without spending all of our energy and time looking around to check that B Visual Sensory Memory Brief holding of visual info A lot of information in coming into and it held here for a few seconds so we can decide whether or not we want to hold on to it any longer Most of the time things that we see are not that important and are not held in this memory for very long but there is always one thing you see that you pay more attention to n Walking down McKinley you have buses cars trees animals and other things that you are passing by but you don t stop to think about these things Once you see something that catches your attention like a friend you know then that is what your brain focuses on Sperling 1960 Study of the capacity amp duration of the Icon 110 a When he uses the word icon he uses it to refer to that any given moment when you are sampling the environment you have that snapshot image being held in your visual sensory memory 1 Capacity of the icon study He would bring people in and have them sit in front of a computer He would ash an image of 12 letters on a computer screen and see what they remember from it Results of the capacity study Whole reportquot 36 of all items recalled From this he concluded that at any given moment we are seeing about a third or a little bit more of a scene but maybe we are seeing more than that but the information is fading so quickly that it is gone before we can remember it Variation on capacity study quotpartial reportquot tone cued Ps to recall one of three lines a different tone for each line each tone will tell the participants which line he wants them to recall o If the participants really are seeing all of the letters it wouldn t matter which tone he plays because it shouldn t change what the participants remember quotPartial reportquot 75 of one row recalled a He concluded from this that we perceive approximately 75 of total scene 2 Duration of the icon study Used the same procedure from before with ashing the letters and the tone The difference or additional twist was a delay between disappearance of stimuli and tone that cues recall 0 15 3 5 or 10 second delay He s essentially asking how long we can hold that information in our visual sensory memory Resu s o 0 sex delay 75 recall 0 15 sec delay 66 o 3 sec delay 50 o 5 sec delay 41 o 10 sec delay 33 0 So how long does visual memory last Not much more than a second 0 What is the Independent variable 0 Time the thing he was manipulating What is the dependent variable 0 Recall n 3 Final points auditory errors 0 Ex quotPquot l not R o If a person got a letter wrong he realized they would make auditory mistakes instead of visual mistakes So they would remember a letter that rhymed with the correct letter instead of remembering one that looked like it o This is because we say the letters to ourselves while we are remembering them 0 Does the study have ecological validity o This essentially is asking How does this study applies to real life situation 0 This study did not seem that important but Sterling responded with the idea of How much of the world do we see around us Letters ashing on a screen may not seem very important but it is a great representation of what our eyes actually do in real life They work in little blinks of your surroundings lll Object Recognition A Background Sensation rst becomes a neural signal then we compare it with stimuli in our memory Think of the rst time you walked into a classroom and saw one of the wheelie chairs You have to match what you are seeing in front of you and memories from your past experiences You see the object match it with an item that you are familiar with and make an assumption of what it is from matching it with the previous item a Wheelie chair l chair l you sit in it This process occurs quickly B Theories of OR 1 Gestalt El El The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Example A car each piece is worth a lot of money but they are not useful until you put them altogether Picture on BB Our are these images important together to make one big picture Each of these could be seen as a bunch of random dots or lines but we see the image that it makes The dots connect the X s and O s turn into rows ad so on For closure the big circe isn t actually a full circle but we perceive it that way 2 Template matching El Suggests that we have different templates in our memory that we compare to new memories 0 Ex A in memory A we see and recognize Problems with unusual patterns 0 Picture on BB Probably haven t seen this exact same template but we recognize that it is a roller coaster 3 Feature Analysis El El When you walk in and see the wheelie chair you see it as separate pieces wheels chair desk bottom We don t realize this because our mind is condition to perceive it as a whole item 0 Ex RT for P and R vs P vs V o It will take longer to distinguish between P and R than it would P and V because the P and R have more parts in common We see each part separately so items that look very similar are harder to separate in our minds Hubel and Wiesel s single cell recording We have individual neurons that respond to individual features so they will only re when we see a certain feature Ex cat face chair a horizontal line At rst we see all the pieces of a star certain neurons see a horizontal line certain ones see a diagonal line and certain neurons see diagonal lines going the other way then they all communicate together and recognize it as a star Problems 0 Relationships how do we represent the relationships between all the different features Because we break down objects into certain features we have not explained how we put them back together in our mind 0 Complex shapes How do we recognize them How are we breaking it down into component shapes According to feature analysis how do we recognize or break down these super complex images Feature analysis does a great job of explaining some simple images but it doesn t explain more complex images lV Unusual Aspects of Perception V Auditory Perception
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