Class Note for ECOL 506R with Professor Bonine at UA
Class Note for ECOL 506R with Professor Bonine at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 02 23 Aug 2007 ECO39Ogica39 F tprint 1 If not in lecture Tuesda What is Conservation Biology 39 y39 please see us after class Conservation Biology ECOL 406R506R University of Arizona Fall 2007 Kevin Bonine Cathy Hulshof Upcoming Readings today Textbook chapter 1 Noss 1999 Tues 28 Aug Textbook chapter 3 Callicott 1997 from Meffe and Carroll Thurs 30 Aug Textbook Ch 3 Leopold readings Q1 due 30 Aug if you choose to answer Conservation Biolo 406L 506L Lab Friday tomorrow 1230 S or W side BSE 4th and Highland Hat water sunscreen closetoed shoes Readings on Course Website 24 Aug Tumamoc Hill and Introduction VAN ecological research study plots geology Tucson basin desert vegetation introductions and schedules Public Water Leeturewith Peter Gleiek Fresh water avallablllty ls agrowlng lssue of eoneern aeross the world butno where more than ln andlands Tueson ls no exeeptron Will projectlons of ourwater supply ln the dlstant future 7 even ln the next deeade or two 7 be aeeurate7 How will prolonged drought affect both water quantaty and quallty7 What rrnpaets will water supply have on the reglon s eeonornre yrabrhty7 Sustanable Tueson ls corhost of a pubhe leeture by lnternataonal water expert Peter Glelek along with the Water Resources Research Center W39RRC and Insatute for the Study of Planet Earth ISPE at the University of Arizona and the Southern Arizona Leadershlp Councll SALC AMaeArthur Felan and wldely publlshedln leadlng serentr e Joumals Dr Peter Glelekls one ofthe world s top experts on the rrnpaets of ehrnate ehange on water supply Hls work wrth eornrnunrtres and goyernrnents aeross the Southwest andthe world bnngs a broad perspeetwe to the loeal dlscusslon How ean we de ne sustainablewater pnlicies based on soundlaws and sclence7 To what extent wlll water transfers andrnarkets e the eeonornres ofshl lng water rhelp us reeonerle growth and supplles whleh are hrnrted keeplng ln rnrnd that global Warmlng as well as landruse ehanges will llkely affect both surface and groundwater systerns7 Sustanable Tueson belleves Dr Glelek s vlslon ean help lnfol39m loeal plannlng by brlnglng the expenenee of rnany eornrnunrtaes to bear on Tucson s ereatrye solutrons to longrterm water seeunty Dr Glelek wlll address water experts and otherleaders at the Arizona Hydrologre Soclety s reglonal conference Sustainable Water Unlrrnrted Growth and Quallty olefe Can We Have It A117 to be held August 27 e 30 ln Tueson The Jolntplannlng ofthls pubhe leeture arnongstunryersrty departments eryre buslness and eornrnunrty groups points to exertang new dialogue oyerwater and sustanabrlrtytalung plaee ln our eornrnunrty The lecture wlll take place ln Tucson on Auglsl 30 at 730 pm at Temple EmanurEl r 225 N Country Club Rd Contact Madeline Kiser or Susan Williams susanleewilliamscoxnel for more inronnan39on u ane tucson httpWWWsustainabletucsonorg nahnon httpWwwecoalitionorgindexhtml Think Globally Act Locally Quiz What were two ofthe four questions that the Noss 1999 paper attempts to address mnwnimnn hmln ndu Ii me Hi m I ul lN prllmplc nl can 39nlmu Huh 1 l ul u rm uppmpriule mum mi cunwnnliuu inningm re we cllticdling mm illnll lxiuiuguw properh J llt munrumquot lwmiu llSlIHL l Irum uiim iviulnyitiil Alltl re urea nmnugemeni dumplings i nnj n39ur ilIiw nl liigsg Distinguish between Conservation and Preservation as defined in the Noss paper I39rum Mun il mums iuduy Conservation in Aumriuu dl Ian i was Ily utilitarian and va nppu d presen ulmiL which meant i1l39nlEL llllg ih wnmlu naiurci mostly for the spiritual and aesthetic e11 mom of mainkind FOX IQSI Preserwiliun mlin li ilClTiNlL Ll us in liands oiT approach one option in a 5 What is Conservation Biology When and what were the origins of the discipline Figure 15 The lm issue of the jaw nal Conwnmmii Biology publishzd in May 1987 Photograph courtesy of E P Pieter Marie and Carroll 1997 5 Van Dyke Chapter 1 p 4 Ethical and Conceptual Roots 1 Intrinsic Value revisit in Ch 3 2 Ecosystem services 3 Aesthetic spiritual enrichment Table L1 Emsyslem Services and Functions 139 nspsscm SCH Inquot Exampls G il39uulnnun lenuiu ru mon lhslurhmw rcguhnml Warm rcgulaxinn Vmr supply 39uunn comml and mumm ruevulun 501 lummnun Nun w mung 39ltrc rrmrmml l39nllmMmH ismiq ml comm llcfugla Fund prnducliun Raw quotL1 flJlS Gcnciic msuuurs lgamnion Cultural Lnrbun mamammquot mum men in pmru nun mm ukmmlc light mmhusc 14 gulnuon drmnhyl sulpl udc prmlurnnn Alli ing lnud mamaquot 5mm pmlecunn flnml mmrol dvmighr rccm39cn39 vsgcmiinn smmun mi mhrr Amy mmmllul h3 Provisioning of mm or agriculmml mm as irrignlmni or industrial such a milling processes or mnspommn l mvlsiouing m water by warmhcds rcscn mrs md nqull39crs human or lugs m sull by wind munn39 nr mlxcr mmml prm wsrs Sromgc m 51k in lake md wllunds Vrllllcnng ui rock m m accumuhuon ol mult nurcml Mumn limium niIrvgtn lvlnvspllnm mle Ham elmucnml m numrm t ulrs mm rrcalmrnn pnllunnn unuml eruhmnmi pmvmmm i mumquot rm a mum quoti plan pnpulaumn lxryrnm39 prcdnmr mm m pm qer s mm mm or migratory spam rcgmml lubimrs or locall immd spcms 0r m crwinurmg gmumk mdmnm r hrrlmnrv 1 mp pi39tdamri pmmnm or sh gamu mps nuts and mm b hummgmunmm suh umcc tnnmg nr Ming The pruducnon ul lumber incl ur luddur Mediumquot products to mammals mum 11mm 2m rcuimncc 0 Dim whom md mp pt 5 nrmmmul spams pus mu hnrnmlmnl wmm quoti pun ch39m m pmr mmne m mm nurddm rmrmriuml L39l39ll39ll Amrlirm irllulc cdumiinml spmnuI andhr samn c alu ni rm sum up hr grim Xerv mi iuv39 m vl 11 in u n mm man mu md rumml Brennan and Withgott 2005 Van Dyke Chapter 1 p 5 Genuine and enduring conservation can occur only When humans knowingly use resources at less than rnaxirnurn sustainable rates or forgo the use of some resources altogether RESTRAINT Philosophy eg Plato Religion eg Judaism Nobility and their Forests Modern Con Bio starts in Colter s Hell John Colter 1807 Lewis and Clark Yellowstone Area ThnmasMamnan m Mammalh Temces Phntnguph byWilhAm H mm 1271 NanonalPavlcSavwca 1n RomanticTranscendentalist Ethic vs Resource Conservation Ethic Preservation vs Conservation 11 RomanticTranscendentalist Ethic Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau John Muir Sierra Club 1892 NGO Education Lobby LawPolitics Yellowstone National Park 1872 Yosemite National Park 1890 ESA 1917 gt Nature Conservancy 1950 12 Ral h Wald Emma 13031332 Henry David Thoreau 181771862 A Successful life quotTo laugh oiten and much to win the respect oi intelligent people and the ailection oi children to earn the appreciation oi honest critics and endure the betrayal oi ialse iriends to appreciate beauty to nd the best in others to leave the world a bit better whether by a healthy child a garden patch or aredeeined social condition to know even one lire has breathed easier because you have livedquot 7 Ralph Waldo Emerson r Many go shing all their lives without lmowing that it is not sh they are a er Beware of all enterprises that require new clothes It is not worthwhile to go around the worldto count the cats in Zanzibar Wherever a man goes men will pursue him and paw him with their dirty institutions and ifthey can constrain him to belong to their desperate oddfellow socie N quotpoe cotralnpogeold st John Muir 18381914 15 Teddy Roosevelt president 1901 1909 Wm M wow mm m H L W M p Wigwam To Roosevelt it was clear that a handful of individuals and their companies were reaping most of the profits from natural resources that rightfully belonged to all CltlZenS aank22umu 1n early 1900s Trustbuster Resources for use but forever National Wildlife Refuge System 52 designations by TR 17 Gifford Pinchot The greamst good for me greamst nu mber for me longest timequot resource conservation ethic 1 Equity 2 Ef ciency gm momma elm Mu eomeu cl rhe venue nngvnhzn mlE JEdevcrbuililh monogram quotgr lDyea us rm Semi and my 1 12 Sustainable Use Maximum Sustained Yield USE those resources 19 Modern Conservation Biology National Parks US Transferable 20 10 Aldo Leomld Game Management 1932 A Sand County Almanac 1966 revohtionecology land emic flgule Ls momma new a m Manamammmmma mas i aaek Land Health and the AB Clavage Commodmes A vs Processes B 21 Rachel Carson Slent Sprng 1962 Bioaccu mu Iation rLevels and scale rEnvironmemal degradation mreaten human health Increased Public Awareness quotglue u momma m w m am new hm seem quotI Mmmuub w sdemmmem 11 m m m v n m a w mumquot Pesticides and Child D8velopmcnl in Mexico s Yaqui Vaucy u uh mm mm m m W m d Wm Wm M m In Amwv w mum mum vl ermhm xm Wm m mquot mp m mm Wu 1 390 mmmm m mmm mm m mum m hmknweulhrlwuy quotM mm mm mm W Vquot mm mm mm WWW WU mm m mum u mm mum m mamaquot m mm m m mnhmh mm M m n 1 mm Mmme w Dummymmmmm s s n K V Wm M ernlmru mummumx 5 Jum m mmmmwn f wanwan mm a mum dewwunmany M u numbmumu v 7 39 m m mm mm mmumu V m WWW W W Mmmmrk Hmmm1 rmwmnm m m vwwm m mm mm 21mm 5 m m w W Wde w W u w Everman and WW m5 mm W m m m Hun m hum mmwm mm W MW 45m W N w m W 1wumwm Hvlmunh mm MmLM W Mummwn mm 23 my hmwhmw UKMWWH WWW um 11 Emsyslum Sank2 am Funniuns hmukm wn m mum m m Mm mm hawkmam Mm monc m pmncnuu 4mm ullminlcr Iiulu umm vcgvl nmm Lmmmuw 1 n mhwn munm wim Imxm mm 3 mm rumumm mm m m ALmvm erm pmrn nmv linnd mum1L dmughx m nu wgumn slnmmr and am my mmmu m mmu m mamm ma a mum qu Icgn Mlun I39Ammm 39ng m MW or Agrvcu ulml mm as If mam nr musrnmum Valtrmppb I wxiwmix 1 um m unumimh Mum m Mum mm mm m vmmm n m m w m mm Hummmw yumm mm WK m 14 Juvlend s mrwuwm lhltrmgu ml md u mmuLum m gum unlqu uqu NW5 m umpxmm mm mm Mn Wmvr rcnnmm Want u lmr mumquot umnul dmmmmm l ullmqliun rmnsmmv m rulhmnr m m rdpnducuuu m p u WWW mum mural kqsmnr xvndumrnuvm quotWm miu mlnn m thunn In my Vrn nnvn Nlusm Numm hatn m nugmmrv spam ng whims rm mm harwxml q rum prudmnan Fresh 10 ml wmnups nun ml Imus m Ivluump murmgummm mum m Mung um mutual m pmdncnun m Inmhcl m m ruaac mum mmunn Hmlmn umde m mmrnalwwm gmvm rm rmqvm m pl39m pulmgrm unlme msr unnmcnul mm pm m lmrmnlmm up u phnm rm mmun hum m mquot Mhmg m urhu nun m mammal K wn a mrnm nsrlvnm mm cIluLJmmJL mmma mum damn mm oi emsvsmu rumuun mm H gt m Wm rm Mum n m Mm ILmum 1 m m mu 4 L M m mm mquot u w Brennan and Wthgun ZEUS 12 Journal of Wildlife Management 1937 Wildlife Society Bulletin VS Conservation Biology Biological Conservation movement from individual game species to large scale and generalized approaches mm 1 nu nu ma ol mewm nal Cms l wn Elabgy published in Merre and Carroll 1997 May 1937 mmth wmksv olE r mm 1985 ill founding of the Sociel for nncenuiion Biolng SFB i111 llie L Kl lL ll miwiun quotlo help develop Lhe scienti c and technical means for lhc proleciion limimcnuncc uml I eslm39zlliun ul lil e nu Ihis planet il npccics 115 ecological and cvolulionur processes and i1 pnrriculur md lnlul emimnmenlvquot from Noss 1999 26 13 Is conservation bioloav a distinct discipline Biodiversity levels and scales Prevent degradation and loss 1 Scarcity and Abundance 2 Value laden and mission driven 3 Diversity and complexity good Untimelv extinction bad 4 Evolution is good genotypic variation process 5 Biotic diversity has intrinsic value NSoul s normative postulates see 8 traits in Van Dyke Chi p 15 o 9 a 4 9c 2 e5quot a i5 43 a we lt9 w cw we 3 o a a e 99 L 15 0 C39la amp ofbox 4 6quot 9 quotg 522m 5 Q Isaac 0 0 0 Q1 4233 age we as s I way 2 0 g1 Phys wk Epidem My 010 01 v w I gt lagquot CANCER l CONSERVATION SoualScIenLes 1 BIOLOGY g v BIOLOGY G o I wag EconI e a 00 6 xo O e Qxxd sup1 Q 5 g Q 6quot o an lt 5 Q 4 q 3905quot 5 m quota v a a a a N g Q 4 ei WMS pq 3 5 Q 3 47 0 at a 57 Are 0 Q Kg a l 753 39 wt 5 5 we 3 P a a Q r 6 W 9 a 39 4 e g Soul 1985 6 1t a Y D Figure 1 Cancer biol ugy and conservation biology are both synthetic multidisciplinary sciences The dashed line indicarss the arti cial nature of the borders bceween disciplines and between basic and applied research Sec eXL 6 Crisis Discipline 28 14 i disciplines one must ucl lwel39m39c knowing a cum tlm39iplinux ll39U llms u mixture oi cn uul m39l le llicir pnmxil iuquim inluiliull m wvll us ml nrmulianquot Soul WM In L39l he Noss 1999 29 Problems Addressed by Consenation Biologists 1 Genetic Diversity variation inbreeding drift hybridization 2 Species MVP PVA small populations declining populations metapopulations 3 Habitat loss fragmentation isolation heterogeneity 4 Ecosystem Processes scale 5 Human sustainability the crux 15 swlcnh chrlhclcw L Ul1L I 39IlIDI biolnginh increm ingly lccognizu that the proximulc and ultimate lll39ruh lu bimlivcrslly inuull l Inm ur do will llumum Pnpulalmn billions am Meffeand 3va 1997 Noss 1999 p 118 Humans on planet Ealth New 5mm Age 6000 mu nmm Age Ivan Age n 31 1 m7 19m aubomq plnguc 1 1 ma 1 nu 2mm 32 16 1948 111 194 u Evelyn Hutchinson mumLl of the thinch ul lhc mpumling human population and the Lllarllpllun of geochemical cycles one milcnmc of which cnuhl be global warming from Nos 1999 2 For Today please calculate your ecological footprint TWICE Once for your life here in the US A second time using the same information but choose a different country httplwwwearthdaynetfootprintlindexasp Frequently Asked Questions re Ecological Footprint mm WVWW rpmgress urgecuiugicaijuutpnmruutpnnthOs mm Bring the Numbers to Class on Thursday Convert to Acres 17 unansw Foot 52 Momm v 1 5mm 42 GoonsSERVICES 7 TOTAL rummum 15 ECOLOGICAL FochINT CAMPAIGN m cammxsou ms AVERAGE scatoexm mammnu vauk pm the Campzrgni coquRv is 2 ACRES m msm Wha m WE x Absinthe Sanitarth Quiz womwmz mass axxsr 45 amoeme nRoDuCnvE ACRES m Vinson suupmt the EF sz EMAIL x Evzmns quu uxz vou wz wouw NEED 34 Dumas Email a Friend zml Result m mm V WHAT vou CAN Do 4 WWW Mummy Mm na city W 7quot Wish saw an Camnuseg COMMENTS AND QuES ONS 39 Comment m m Funkuvmt Q mummy Asked emu m1 What about my Spams What am pmmmm Ecological Footprint The big choices seem to matter the most transportation food unprocessed local trophic level housing reprod uction country lrupllninlagimlFmvpnm 044mm land mu mm Recycling etc important but not as big an impact Paper or Plastic Bring cm Manama lz Faa quot Wight w your own 18 GLOBAL HECTARES FOOD 05 MOBILITY 07 SHELTER 05 GOODSSERVICES 07 TOTAL FOOTPRINT 18 2 8 x 2 47 6 9 acres 1N COMPARISON THE AVERAGE ECOLOGICAL FOOTDRINT in YOUR COUNTRY IS 2 GLOBAL HECTARES PER PERSON WORLDWIDE THERE EXIST 13 BIOLOGICALLY PRODUCTIVE GLOBAL HECI39ARES FER PERSON 1F EVERYONE LIVED LIKE YOU WE WOULD NEED 16 PLANETS Infrastructure and Lifestyle L FOOTPRINI 37 Ecological Footprint Reproduction Hou9ng Travel Food Etc NI annual mama Paci c Ocun 19 Commona Ehrlich early 1970 Develop Countries 12 billion people 19 high average per capita purchasing power have 85 world s wealth I P A T use 88 natural resources generate 75 waste and pollution Environmental Impact Population x Affluence x Technology of a society consumption Poor parents in a developing country DevelOpm countnes need to have 70 200 81 of the people have 15 world s wealth Children to equal the use 12 world s natural resources ImPaCt 0f 2 US produce 25 waste and pollution children 39 One of Commoner s lasting legacies is his four laws of ecology as written in The Closing Circle in 1971 The four laws are 1 Everything is Connected to Everything Else There is one ecosphere for all living organisms and what affects one affects all 2 Evthing Must Go Somewhere There is no quotwastequot in nature and there is no away to which things can be thrown 3 Nature Knows Best Humankind has fashioned technology to improve upon nature but such change in a natural system is says Commoner likely to be detrimental to that system 4 There Is No Such Thing as a Free Lunch In nature both sides of the equation must balance for every gain there is a cost and all debts are eventually paid 40 20 Theoretical Basis of Conservation Biology O 0 Metapopuations Isand Biogeography O 6 O MacArthur and O 9 O C Wilson 1963 Flguu l 3 Testabe Hypotheses rmwa Ham n m Th resh old 5 mow m 4 a lenrlrlllm ulmunm wpuxnmnwpnmmm m Inaquotm um corridor crazequot quotgun m m m a w Mp WWW lur awake m M Mm m an r m mm mm mm Mm Emmmwmw v m P 3 21 Noss 1999 Is there a special conservation biology Origins Soul et al 1978 SCB 1986 Conservation Biology 1987 Ideas Precautionary Principle Value Laden Species differences Umbrella species Advocacy Pattern and Generality vs Special Case p 116 Noss 1999 44 22 Responsible Advocacy Ethical Advocacy p117 Noss 1999 tropical rainforest vs economic development program Is ConBio distinct discipline As Science Management Policy 46 23
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