Intro to Anthropolgy Week 2 of Notes
Intro to Anthropolgy Week 2 of Notes ANTH 1101 - 002
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gregory S. Starrett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Anthropology 1101 Week 2 Chapter 2 evolutionary theory the set of testable hypotheses that assert that living organisms can change over time and give rise to new kinds of organisms with the result that all organisms ultimately share a common ancestry evolution the process of change over time essentialism the belie derived from Plato in fixed ideas or forms that exist in perfect and unchanging in eternity Actual objects in the temporal world such as cows or horses are seen as imperfect material realizations of the ideal form that defines their kind Great Chain of Being a comprehensive framework for interpreting the world based on Aristotelian principles and elaborated during the Middle Ages n which every kind of living organism was linked to every other kind in an enormous divinely created chain An organism differed from the kinds immediately above it and below it on the chain by the least possible degree taxonomy a classification in biology the classification of various kinds of organisms genus the level of the Linnaean taxonomy in which different species are grouped together on the basis of their similarities to one another species 1 for Linnaeus a Platonic quotnatural kind defined in terms of its essence 2 For modern biologists a reproductive community of populations reproductiver isolated from others that occupies a specific niche in nature catastrophism the notion that natural disasters such as flood are responsible for the extinction of species which are then replaced by new species uniformitarianism the notion that an understanding of current processes can be used to reconstruct the past history of the earth based on the assumption that the same gradual processes of erosion and uplift that change the earth s surface today had also been at work in the past transformational evolution also called Lamarckian evolution it assumes essentialist species and a uniform environment transforms itself to meet the challenges of a changed environment through the laws of use and disuse and the inheritance of acquired characters common ancestry Darwin s claim that similar living species most all have had a common ancestor natural selection a twostep mechanistic explanation of how descent with modification takes place 1 every generation variant individuals are generated within a species because of genetic mutation and 2 those variant individuals best suited to the current environment survive and produce more offspring than other variants variational evolution the Darwinian theory of evolution which assumes that variant members of a species respond differently to environmental challenges Those variants that are more successful fitter survive and reproduce more offspring who inherit the traits that made their parents fit fitness a measure of an organism s ability to compete in the struggle for existence Those individuals whose variant traits better equip them to compete with other members of their species for limited resources are more likely to survive and reproduce than individuals who lack such traits aptation the shaping of any useful feature of an organism regardless of its origin adaptation the shaping of any useful feature of an organism by natural selection for the function they now perform exaptation the shaping of a useful feature of an organism by natural selection to perform one function and the later reshaping of it by different selection pressures to perform a new function pangenesis a theory of heredity suggesting that an organism s physical traits are passed on from one generation to the next in the form of multiple distinct particles given off by all parts of the organism different proportions of which get passed on to offspring via sperm or egg Mendelian inheritance the view that heredity is based on nonblending singleparticle genetic inheritance principle ofsegregation a princes of Mendelian inheritance in which an individual gets one particle gene for each trait ie onehalf of the require pair from each parent principle of independent assortment a principle of Mendelian inheritance in which each pair of particles genes separates independently of every other pair when germ cells egg and sperm are formed genetics the scientific study of biological heredity homozygous describes a fertilized egg that receives the same particle or allele from each parent for a particular trait heterozygous describes a fertilized egg that receives a different particle or allele from each parent for a particular trait gene portion or portions of the DNA molecule that code for proteins that shape phenotypic traits alleles all the different forms that a particular gene might take chromosomes sets of paired bodies in the nucleus of cells that are made of DNA and contain the hereditary genetic information that organisms mass on to their offspring mitosis the way body cells make copies of themselves The pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell duplicate and line up along the center of the cell The cell then divides each daughter cell taking one full set of paired chromosomes meiosis the way sex cells make copies of themselves which begins like mitosis with chromosome duplication and the formation of two daughter cell However each daughter cell then divides again without chromosome duplication and as a result contains only a single set of chromosomes rather than the paired set typical of body cells locus a portion of the DNA strand responsible for encoding specific parts of an organism s biological makeup linkage an inheritance pattern in which unrelated phenotypic traits regularly occur together because the genes responsible for those cooccurring traits are passed on together on the same chromosome crossing over the phenomenon that occurs when part of one chromosome breaks off and reattaches itself to a different chromosome during meiosis also called incomplete linkage discontinuous variation a pattern of phenotypic variation in which the phenotype eg flower color exhibits sharp breaks from one member of the population to the next polygeny the phenomenon whereby many genes are responsible for producing a phenotypic trait such as skin color continuous variation a pattern of variation involving polygeny in which phenotypic traits grade imperceptibly from one member of the population to another without sharp breaks pleiotropy the phenomenon whereby a single gene may affect more than one phenotypic trait mutation the creation of a new allele for a gene when the portion of the DNA molecule to which it corresponds is suddenly altered DNA deoxyribonucleic acid the structure that carries the genetic heritage of an organism as a kind of blueprint for the organism s construction and development genome the sum total of all the genetic information about an organism carried on the chromosomes in the cell nucleus genotype the genetic information about particular biological traits encoded in an organism s DNA phenotype the observable measurable overt characteristics of an organism norm of reaction a table or rap that displays the possible range of phenotypic outcomes for a given genotype in different environments niche construction when organisms actively perturb the environment in ways that modify the selection pressures experienced by subsequent generations of organisms human agency the way people struggle often against great odds to exercise some control over their lives Lecture January 20 2016 GCB great chain of being 0 plentitude no change time o continuity similarity o unilinear gradation powers of the soul proposed by Aristotle some things have more powers of the soul than others least to most complex 0 existence 0 life 0 sense 0 perception o thought Evolutionary Theory Charles Darwin first proposed it formally through his work On the Origin of Species 1859 Natural Theoloqy William Paley using observations of nature to make conclusions about what God had in mind analogy of the watch intelligence and mind argumentfrom design philosophical reasoning for the existence of God On Darwin s journey with the HMS Beagle much of the fiveyear journey was spent in South America While Darwin was on the Galapagos Islands he noticed similarities between different types of finches and wondered why God would make different types of the same bird species instead ofjust creating a new species With this he began thinking that the birds perhaps adapted to their environment over time change across space and time Thomas Malthus wrote On Population 1798 population will always outgrow resources essentially asked quotif God is good why do people starve etc Alfred Russell Wallace sent Darwin a letter explaining his theory of how different but similar species of animals came about which turned out to be the same as Darwin s theory of evolution this letter pushed Darwin to write On the Origin of Species quotour classifications will be made genealogies quote from On the Origin of Species
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