Week 2. Exam 1Notes. Feminist Art History.
Week 2. Exam 1Notes. Feminist Art History. AHS 265-1
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by kmschemmel on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AHS 265-1 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Natalie Phillips in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Feminist Art History in Art at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Feminist Art History WEEK 2 Where we left of from Week 1 Rare Exceptions Some women were able to succeed They were related to or had a close relationship to some male artist which enabled them to get education from them and teach them how to make great art 0 Ex Rosa Bonheur didn t have close relative artist but her farther believed in a certain religion where he believed the second messiah would be a women valued women and placed them above men which enabled her to reach success 0 It is not that the women were not capable of greatness but they were limited and restricted from achieving this greatness Monday No class Wed jan 20 Overview of group work Feminist Positive 0 Main point is to ght for equality no matter what gender and peoples rights 0 Strong and independent NegaUve 0 Some relate them to negative terms such as Feminazi Feminist Bitch sometimes thought to be lesbians 0 Strong and independent Overview of last weeks article about Privilege Privilege certain individuals genders or societies etc may have access to something that others may not have 0 Ex White privilege Male privilege o It is important to understand and know the privilege you have and to take into consideration on how that can affect or make others feel 0 Saying quotcheck your privilegequot is not an insult but rather informing you to take into consideration how it affects someone else from a different perspective other than your own Paleolithic Period Ancient Matriarchies Approx 250005000 BC Earliest civilizations of man caveman era Matriarchy vs Patriarchy 0 We largely live in a patriarchy but in one point in human civilization that we called matriarchy where women have the power and the authority over the culture not an equal society Queens goddess etc and women were the most important material 0 Patriarchy is not the rst major order Matriarchy came rst 0 During this time women seemed to have a privileged position goddesses fertility etc over man so considered a Matriarchy time The culture was known as a NOMADS nomadic culture 0 They moved around a lot due to having to huntcapture their food 0 There is no monumental art at this point in time due to having to move a lot so the art was small art pocket size and in some cases they did cave paintings Women of Willendorf 24000 BC 0 Later on they changed it to Venus of Willendorf o It is only 35 inches tall 0 She was meant as a good luck quotcharmquot o Carved on all four sides and is made from a stone The artist worked with the natural quality of the stone for example the stone women s belly button was due to a hole in the stone She was known to be a fertility gure 0 Fertility guregoddess all have common features Emphasis on genatalia breast hips Deemphasized face not important for reproduction tiny arms Sympathetic magic if you carry around this sculpture some of her over abundance of fertility will rub off on you Woman of Laussel 25000 BC 0 She was nonportable She was a cave carving 0 She was a fertility gure exaggerated breasts hips and genital lack of a face and is carrying a crescent shaped object quotcrescent moonquot with 13 marks on it related to the 13 cycles of the moon along with the cycles of fertility Cave Paintings at Lascaux France 1600014000 BC or BCE 0 Very important not just for decoration O Fairly simple drawings but a lot more sophisticated than rst thought to be Made with homemade brushes and earth materials Mostly depicted animals or objects Payed close attention to the details of these gures But normally did not depict any human gures People thought of them as a sympathetic magic for example the more animals the painted the bigger the hope for more animals to come their way for hunting Wounded Man and Disembowelled Bison Lascaux Cave First example of narrative art Depicts a man hunting a bison with a spear that has disemboweled the bison Spear Thrower used to give you extra length and more power to throw a spear farther and harder thought to be the bird on a stick gure depicted in the picture lthyphallic gure seems to look like a fertility gure but is rather about virility just the exaggeration of the male genital to indicate power in artwork even though bison looks like he won the man really won and had the power over the bison Neolithic Period Catal Huyuk 70005000 BC 0 Friday 22 0 They developed agriculture which enabled them to not have to move around as much anymore and to be able to settle down Also caused them to be safer due to more population and shelter Also allowed them to create bigger art Development of agriculture was a huge development during that time for it enabled a food source that they could rely on instead of having to follow and move to the food hunt made life easier Now instead of having to worry so much about fertility they have to worry about other humans now and their power people wanting to take over their village etc Layout of land design was a little irregular because it was designed to expand as the population grew Religion was a very important part of Catal Huyuk each one of the houses had a sacred room There are no roads in the town they walked around on the roofs and to get into the homes they would have ladders that would take you down into home Made it harder for others to attack the city due to tail walls without any doors would have to climb them All the homes are pushedbuilt together in which created a great support system throughout the city due to the walls of the homes supported one another 0 Shrine rooms Female fertility gure Bulls painted on the walls bulls mounted on the walls and other bull sculptures maybe sacri ced bull to some god etc o In room this female gure seemed as if she was giving birth to these bulls Overabundance of these rooms Approximately one in each homeone for each family 0 Matriarchy Egalitarian Society The goddesses all seemed to be women The burials of women they would paint the bones of the women and dress them up the burials were more elaborate than the males Throned Female Figure Flanked by Lions 0 Seems to be the same goddess that gives birth to the bull just like in the shrine rooms 0 Fertility gure 0 Sitting on a throne with an object between her legs said to be giving birth to the bull Her throne is made of these animals hands on top of these two creatures maybe ionsthese creatures obey and serve her 0 Motif of her being anked by two ferocious animals she is taming shows power quotMaster of the Animalsquot 0 Was to show mans power over creaturenature 0 Usually depicts men but they were inspired by the motif of the throned female anked by the two ferocious animals in which she is taming 0 Functions like sympathetic magic controls animals hunting agriculture weather etc to demonstrate that they are in control of nature now Egyptian Art Approx 26001000 BC Nancy Luomala quotMatrilineal Reinterpretations of Some Egyptian Sacred Cowsquot article 0 She talks about this idea of Matrilineal Descent The Egyptians actually had Matrilineal descent which was power passed through the women instead of todays known as Patrilineal descent The power is passed down through the women to the man instead of the man to the women The Egyptians practiced matrilineal descent in the Pharoahnic line This fact has consistently been ignored and has led to misinterpretations of many Egyptian works of art 0 quotDespite the anthropologically recognized importance of Matrilineal Descent in Egyptian culture art historians continue to misinterpret Egyptian art and life by applyingquot Quote from text 0 quotFeminist scholars are learning to questions the timehonored bromides provided by professors and textbooks that were carefully memorized during their educationquot Quote from text 0 Traditional Title Mycerinus and his Queen However this title is wrong because it says the king s name and then just says queen But if we were really in their time it should be the queens actual name and then the kings due to their matrilineal descent They also had the kings name wrong Revised Title Menkaure and Khamerernebty 0 Traditional Interpretation Standing slightly behind him and looks as if she is clinging to him being submissive We are interpreting this through our own eyes However in the article they argue that the only way Menkaure has power is because Khamerenebty gave him this power she is presenting him Menkaure is taking the second rule behind Khamerenebty She could have instead decided to keep the power for herself o quotA queen s embrace in Egyptian art should be more properly read as a gesture of Quote from text 0 quotAlthough the king was the visible administrator of Egypt he showsquot Quote from text Both gures were of the same scale therefore they were equal in importance and power 0 Canon of Proportions They used a grid system so no matter the size of the work the proportions would be the same 0 Hierarchal Scale Sometimes used this scale to represent power The tallerbigger gure was more power over the smaller gures 0 The pharaoh as child of the skygoddess 0 Old and middle kingdom In the article she mostly talks about these two kingdoms However she doesn t look to much as new kingdom art some things changed 0 Instead of god Nut being important the god Ra became very important 0 Temple of Ramses ll Abu Simbel Ramses II was a very important guy and worshipped the god Rasun god instead of Nut Here the sun would shine through the little passage door in which then on his birthday the sun would light up the sculpture inside Set a bunch of the sculptures that are on the outside all around he had a very big ego Even though there was matrilineal descent he didn t really care for his queen Nofetari o Ramses and his Wife Nofertari Shown in hierarchy scale Wanted to show power as pharaoh instead of through his wife Important female pharaohs and regents King Hatshepsut 0 She was pharaoh in which came with all the power that is associated with it o Thutmose ll Hatshepsut s husband 0 Thutmose lll Hatshepsut s stepson When Hatshepsut married Thutmose II who had a sonThutmose ll she gave him her power to be pharaoh After he died she had to make the decision of whether or not to keep the power of pharaoh or to pass it down to her step son who was only 6 years old at the time Hatshepsut did not want to give that kind of power to a child so she kept it for herself Later on Thutmose III was upset that he was not given the power he thought was rightfully his when he was younger and he started some things due to this but Hatshepsut decided to just keep the power for herself Funerary Temple of King Hatshepsut by Senmut architect
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