KINS 2010 Week 2 Notes
KINS 2010 Week 2 Notes 2100
Popular in Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries
Popular in Kinesiology
Alea Nicole Vick
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Christine Samson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries in Kinesiology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Kins SS Notes 2 01252016 Chapter 7 Protective Equipment Injury Prevention Safety Standards for Equipment and Facilities Concerns relative to materials durability establishment of standards manufacturing testing methods and requirements for use 0 Maintenance how often do we check what are we looking for possibility of being sent back Reconditioning mainly happens with football helmets high school level strip the paint and check material breakdown every piece and run tests wash the padding measure how the helmet holds up to certain forces 0 Only take a portion of helmets to be tested means not all are proven safe before season starts Concern should be protective ability not appearance of equipment Legal Concerns 0 Increasing amount of litigation regarding equipment 0 The only time the manufacturer is liable is if equipment is used in the state it s received and is used for what it s meant for o If equipment is modi ed modi er is now responsible Equipment Reconditioning and Recerti cation NOCSAE National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment that set guidelines that manufacturers must meet 0 Indicated by a sticker on any helmet manufactured o Helmet standard Just because it s certi ed doesn t mean there is a warranty it merely means it meets the standards when manufactured 0 Should undergo regular recerti cation and reconditioning Head Protection 0 Direct collision sports require head protection due to impacts forces velocities and implements o Helmets face mask head gear mouth guards goggles etc 0 Football Helmets o NOCSAE develops standards for football helmet certi cation 0 Must be certi ed but may not always be failsafe if failsafe when the helmet cracks the athlete would not also get injured This can never be guaranteed 0 Athletes and parents must be aware of inherent risks 0 Each helmet must have visible exterior warning label NOCSAE Athletes must be aware of risks and what label indicates 0 Label is important for manufacturers for liability Soccer Headgear Designed to reduce incidence of concussions due to heading ball 0 Technically doesn t prevent the movement of brain inside of skull 0 Strengthening your neck would help more because your brain would move less in your skull Face Protection 0 Five categories 0 Face Guard has reduced the number of face injuries poking eyes out mouth injuries All mountings must be ushed to the helmet must feel like it is a part of the helmet smooth nish 0 Throat Protection if you get hit hard enough in the throat the trachea could collapse and the athlete could stop breathing Fatal 0 Mouth Guards most dental injuries can be prevented protect teeth minimize lip lacerations Should t comfortably not impede speech or breathing Important to extend past last molar to decrease chances of it coming out and choking Three types a Stock can t be customized a Commercial dip in hot water and put in mouth to form to teeth a Custom fabricated from dental mold 0 Ear Guards Most sports do not use Wrestling water polo boxing 0 Eye Protection Highest percentage of eye injuries are sports related Generally blunt trauma Trunk and Thorax Protection 0 Essential in many sports 0 Must protect regions that are exposed to the impact of forces 0 External genitalia bony protuberances shoulders ribs and spine 0 Risk compensation identify the risk and adapt to change the likelihood of getting the injury implementing a technique or using some type of equipment to prevent the injury 0 Sports Bras 0 Designed to minimize excessive vertical and horizontal movements to prevent premature sagging Hips and Buttocks 0 Required in collision and highvelocity sports Girdle and belt types 0 Boxing snow skiers equestrians jockeys water skiers Groin and Genitalia 0 Sports involving high velocity projectiles Require cup protection for male participants 0 Stock item that ts into athletic supporter Lower Extremity Protective Equipment Socks 0 Shoes proper type to help prevent injury depending on how your foot is shaped 0 Wear and longevity Cushion takes at least 24 hours to rise back up to current state important to alternate shoes 0 Proper t 0 Foot Orthotics device for correcting biomechanical problems that exist in foot that can cause injury 0 Plastic thermoplastic rubber sorbethane leather support or readymade products 0 Can also be customized by physician Ankle Braces 0 Alone or with tape with tape doesn t necessarily make it more effective 0 Signi cant debate over ef cacy 0 Little or no impact on performance 0 Compared to tape the device will not loosed signi cantly with use 0 Evidence to support use for prevention 0 Shin and Lower Leg shin guards are used in eld hockey and soccer Knee Braces 0 Used prophylactically used without injury to prevent injuries to MCL particularly linemen o AOSSM has expressed concerns to efficacy in doing so 0 May positively in uence joint position sense Types of Braces Rehabilitative useful after surgery can be adjusted Functional used at the end of rehab when trying to get athlete back into play Neoprene provide extra support Elbow Wrist and Hand Protection Often trivialized Susceptible to fracture dislocation sprain 0 Goal is to reduce these 0 Dynamic Splints used for injuries in hand and ngers 0 Keep you in a certain locked position which provides the ideal environment for ligaments and tendons to heal 0 Combo of plastic elastic and velcro Construction of Protective and Supportive Devices 0 An athletic trainer should be able to design and construct protective devices 0 Heating and molding a device 0 Must have knowledge of theoretical basis in order to make the best device 0 Use a combination of materials How else can we prevent injuries 0 Being in shape conditioning 0 Strengthening correctly 0 Warm up cool downs Good form 0 Making sure athletes are educated to do things correcty Chapter 9 Mechanisms and Characteristics of Musculoskeletal and Nerve Trauma Mechanical Injury 0 Trauma physical injury or wound produced by internal or external force 0 The external force results in trauma 0 Results from force or mechanical energy that changes state of rest or uniform motion of matter 0 Example collision from other player changes state of bone from whole to pieces Tissue Properties In order for an injury to happen the force must break the tissue 0 Load application of force that causes stress Stiffness ability of tissue to resist load force 0 The greater the stiffness the greater the magnitude a load can resist Stress internal resistance to a load force vs Strain change in shape tissue 0 The beginning of the graph is the elastic region the ability of the tissue to be stretched to a certain point and then go back to normal 0 The second part of the graph is the plastic region the tissue being stretched past the certain point where the tissue doesn t go back to it s complete normal state Where injury begins to happen o If the force gets past the yield point the tissue will fracture Tissue Loading 0 Compression force coming from both sides so that whatever is in the middle is crushed tissue crush o Tension a force applied at both ends which stretches the Ussue o Shearing force that moves across perpendicular to the parallel organization of tissue Bending can occur when forces are applied at different points of the tissue 0 Two force pairs act at opposite ends of a structure 2 point bending 0 Three forces causes bending 3 point bending Torsion twisting in opposite directions from opposite ends lnjury Classi cation Primary injury direct result of a force Secondary injury delayed injury some time after initial trauma 0 An accommodation to the primary injury Acute injury something that happens immediately after sustaining a blow 0 Load force was applied and the immediate result was an injury Chronic injury failure of tissue that is a result of repeated trauma over a period of time 0 Example tendinitis o Gradual onset and prolonged duration Muscle Strains Fibers are stretched passed a certain point which causes a tear in the muscle 0 Damage to muscle that results from over stretching Difficult to identify cause of muscle strains Graded based off of severity Grades of Muscle lnjuries 0 First Degree result of slight over stretching not very signi cant won t affect patient to severely Results in bruising mild loss of strength swelling etc 0 Second Degree further stretching more severe worse symptoms than above depends on individual 0 Third Degree complete rupture severe symptoms lose function of muscle tendon will shift proximally Avulsion tendon comes away from attachment sight Other Muscle Injuries 0 Muscle cramps involuntary contractions Muscle guarding muscle contraction in response to pain 0 Muscle spasms o Clonic involuntary o Tonic constant contraction for long period of time Tendon Injuries Attaches muscle to bone 0 Usually double the strength of the muscle it serves 0 Based off orientation of bers characteristics of tendon Injury types 0 Tendinitis in ammation of tendon o Tenosynovitis in ammation of sheet around tendon o StrainRupture Mechanisms o StrainRupture high magnitude single load often times tendon is on a stretch Common in older people who continue to play sports and people who have sustained many tendon injuries 0 TendinitisTenosynovitis repetitive low magnitude forces occur over time o Compressive forces 0 Friction constant rubbing that can occur 0 Repetitive stress results in microtrauma and elongation The constant state of in ammation leads to increased collagen production which results in weakening of tendons Contusions Results from a sudden blow to the body Leads to formation of hematoma blood and lymph ow into surrounding tissue 0 As swelling accumulates it affects the way the brain communicates with the area which results in change of function Chronically in amed and contused tissue can lead to calcium deposit buildup bone in the area to protect the area from blows to the area Myositis Ossificans Mechanical Properties of Ligament connects bone to bone 0 Frequency of Loading repeated loading leads to weakening of ligament The ability to resist tension depends on how the load is applied 0 Can be injured the same way tendons are 0 High magnitude ACL tears 0 Low magnitude causes change in ligament properties Graded the same way muscles are Dislocations and Subluxations Subluxation the ability of bone to go out of contact but come back together immediately 0 Muscle guarding begins to happen the instance bones are not touching each other s surfaces anymore Dislocation if someone has to physically put the bone back into place it becomes this
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