BSC216 week of 1/18
BSC216 week of 1/18 216
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lecture in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Cardiovascular system Blood Major formed elements Erythrocytes 0 Carry oxygen 0 Can circulate for 19 days 0 Have Plasma membrane 0 No nucleus Leukocytes o Immunity 0 Examples Basoth Eosinophil Neutrophil Monocyte Lymphocyte 0 Have Plasma membrane 0 Have Nucleus 0 Have Granules Platelets o clotting No nucleus Derived from cells Have plasma membrane Have mitochondria Have microtubules Have granules 000000 01282016 Thrombopoiesis Hematopoietic stem cell 0 Myeloid cell lineage as opposed to lymphoid Megakaryoblast 0 Having repeated mitosis without cytokinesis Copying nucleus but not dividing Mega karyocyte 0 Under in uence of thrombopoietin hormone Controls how many platelets are produced Sinusoidal capillaries allow cells to enter blood stream a Flow of blood breaks off parts of cytoplasmic arm making it into its own little unit in a Hematnnietia stem mils iliu lvellni image Eli quotquot553ng Erythmpuiesis rhrnumhu auiesis a a k p LEUI Ep IIEEE Hleutmlphllls Emsinnphii lls 4 1r El l l lllillE H F39Igtelets Erythirmey tes mmm es Lymphovtes hemostasis a series of events that form a gelatinous blood clot in order to seal injured vessels vascular spasmplatelet plug formationcoagulationclot retractionthrombolysis coagulation a step within the hemostasis process 0 involves number of steps coagulation cascade that activate clotting proteins converts the liquid platelet plug into a more solid clot Overall process of hemostasis Vascular spasm o Vessel injured 0 Blood leaks out into extracellular uid Results in increased tissue uid pressure 0 lnjury triggers vascular spasm Temporary vasoconstriction Decreases diameter of artery decreased pressure inside vessel Decreased ow and pressure a Minimizes blood loss Platelet plug formation 0 Vessel injury Causes endothelial cells to release von Willebrand factor vWF Exposes collagen bers in tunica adventitia to blood 0 Cellcell communication vWF and collagen bind to receptors on platelet membrane causing them to stick to each other and the injured site activated platelet release their granules contents platelet plug 0 granule contents ATP ADP seratonin clotting factors etc attract and activate nearby platelets o activated platelets aggregate to form mostly liquid platelet plug coagulation o brin sticky threadlike protein holds platelets endothelial cells and formed elements together clot retraction o coagulated clot o wound edges brought closer together actin and myosin laments contracting platelets a serum squeezed out of clot Clotting cascade intrinsic vs extrinsic Intrinsic pathway 0 Everything happens inside the blood stream 0 Exposed collagen Activates Factor Xll so it becomes Factor Xlla n Activates Factor XI l Xla Forms enzyme complex Vllla IXa calcium to activate Factor X l Xa Ultimately activates thrombin Extrinsic pathway 0 Occurs outside of blood stream 0 Subendothelial cells are stimulated to activate tissue factor Tissue factor sticks into blood stream to activate a Factor VII l Vlla n Enzyme complex Vlla Xa calcium n This activates Factor X I Xa n Ultimately activates thrombin Vitamin K 0 Required for the synthesis of clotting factors ll VII IX X Calcium 0 Required for the clotting factors to associate with the platelet plug Positive feedback loops in Platelet o Activated platelets feeding back to gather more activated platelets Coagulation 0 Factor VIII and IX need to be activated VIII is activated by the constant little bit of thrombin always in blood stream Ultimately activates Factor X to activate more thrombin n Increased prothrombin being recruited and activated into thrombin positive feedback Process of thrombolysis Dissociating ber glue to get rid of clot Endothelial cells release tissue plasminogen factor tPa tPa activates plasminogen Plasmin degrades Fibrin o Bits and pieces break apart and join bloodstream Clicker Quiz 0 A toxin or poison that interferes with protein synthesis will affect the function of platelets circulating in the bloodstream 0 False What is the purpose of clot retraction 0 To bring the edges of a wounded vessel closer together Platelets are derived from cells called 0 Mega karyocytes Hemolysis is a series of events that occurs in this order
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