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week 2 of notes

by: Brooke Martin

week 2 of notes Biology 2107

Brooke Martin
GPA 3.9
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Principles of Biology
Eric Gilbert

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About this Document

3.1-3.3 and 4.1
Principles of Biology
Eric Gilbert
Class Notes
Biology, GSU, georgia state university, week two, notes




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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Martin on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 2107 at Georgia State University taught by Eric Gilbert in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
Brooke Martin Biology 2107 Dr Gilbert January 17 2016 Week 2 notes CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF DMA 32 Nucleotides Subunits of DNA Components 5 Carbon sugar Base gives nucleotide chemical ID Phosphate group one or more Bases Double ltgt Adenme Guanine 1 gt6 bond Thym39neL Pair bound by H 7 Pyrimidi ne ltgt Cytosine A bond Sugar base nucleoSide Phosphate Nucleotide DNA linear polymer of nucleotides linked by PHOSPHODIESTER BONDS Polarity one end differs from the other Double helix Shape of DNA Antiparallel Runs in opposite directions 3 end is opposite to 5 Base stacking Nonpolar at surface of the bases group together away from water Topoisomerase Causes supercoiling of DNA DNA is linear forms one chromosome Packaged chromosome chromatin Histone forms bonds to tighten up chromosome MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS 41 Amino Acid Structure Hydrogen Amino Carboxyl quot l 0 H M H I 0 R Rgroup variant 20 Amino Acids Hydrophobic 8 Hydrophilic Basic 3 Acidic 2 Polar 4 Special 3 Hella amino acids hella amino acids protein AKA polypeptide Peptide bond carbonyl group amino group Carbonyl group CO Amino group N H PROTEIN STRUCTURE PRIMARY One sequence of amino acids Ex Ser Pro Ile Thr Determines how a protein folds SECONDARY Interactions between nearby Amino Acids Polypeptide Alpha helix and Beta sheet Stabilized by H bonding TERTIARY 3D shape of a protein Determine function of a protein Via spatial distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic side chains QUATENARY Interactions of polypeptide subunits MAJOR BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OD DNA 31 Replication copying process Error in replication mutation DNA gt RNA gt Protein V Central dogma STEPS 1 Transcription DNA used as template to make RNA 2 Translation RNA code for sequence of amino acids in protein Nucleotides nucleic acid gt amino acid proteins RETRIVAL OF GENETIC INFORMATIO STORED IN DNA 33 Ribosomes where proteins are synthesized RNA linked by phosphodiester bonds Ribose sugar Uracil base RNA transcript complementary in sequence according to baseparing rules Sub U for A RNA polymerase adds nucleotides to 3 end of growing transcript Enzyme that carries out polymerization Transcribed 3 gt 5 Grows 5 gt 3 TRANSCRIPTION Start promoter A few 100 base pairs where RNA polymerase proteins bind to DNA duplex End terminator Housekeeping genes products needed in all cells at all times Stigma factor promoter recognition in BACTERIA Facilitates binding to speci c promoters General transcription factors promoter recognition in Eukaryotes Bind to promoter Pol II responsible for transcription of protein coding genes Transcriptional activator protein Binds to speci c DNA sequence called enhancers Recruits mediator complex Interacts with Pol II RNA DNA complex RNA transcript paired with template strand Around 8 pairs Polymerization reaction Allows RNA transcript to be elongated Releases a phosphate group N CLASS NOTES Functional group for Sugar FliH Alden13mm mama Meanail Em Alcohol Fats Estar Amino acids Protein Amine ATP 0 n O P O39 O Phosphate CLASSES OF BIOMOLECU LES 1 Carbohydrates 2 Lipids Build cell membranes 3 Amino acids Build proteins 4 Nucleic acids Build DNA Sugar monomer sugar monomer polysaccharide 4 Glycos39 39c bond LIPIDS Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tai Function cell membrane and energy storage AMINO ACIDS Linked via peptide bonds Form polypeptides TRANSCRIPTION Making mRNA from DNA template Uracil binds with adenine RNA polymerase multicomponent enzyme Promoter region where RNA polymerase likes to bind mRNA transcript gt ribosome


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