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History 202 - Week 2 notes

by: John Hopkins

History 202 - Week 2 notes History 202

Marketplace > Ball State University > Global Studies > History 202 > History 202 Week 2 notes
John Hopkins
GPA 3.061
American History (1877 to the Present)
Simon Bolto

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About this Document

Covers material discussed in the second week.
American History (1877 to the Present)
Simon Bolto
Class Notes
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by John Hopkins on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 202 at Ball State University taught by Simon Bolto in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see American History (1877 to the Present) in Global Studies at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 01/24/16
History 202 Lecture Notes These notes are not to be used in place of your own you are still responsible to take your own notes These notes that I am providing are to aid your own notes and help you study in this course Lecture 3 11916 The tos of the civil war are being recognized just shortly after the wars end The war had killed 2 of the country s population left 4 million former slaves wondering what comes next the southern economy has been completely destroyed and the states are still divided So now what Once again the north and south are fighting but this time it s over what they think the country should look like how it should be pieced back together Violence comes with the new era of reconstruction Starting with the freed slaves they have found themselves at a loss of what to do next 0 What does it mean to be a slave I It means you re someone else s property I It means you have no control over your life I It means you have only been taught one or two basic skills at most 0 Some former slaves continued working for their former masters for compensation 0 However at some point in each of their lives they realized they could control their own destinies now and from that point on we see African Americans in societal and governmental occupations Reconstruction is the greatest undertaking that the country has ever seen Each social political and economical structure is changing 0 There are two phases to the reconstruction I Presidential I Radical o The top priority at the time being is bringing the states back together and unifying the country Andrew Johnson is now the president Lincoln s vice president I He s a slave holder from Tennessee and was the Governor I He s racist and he also hates the wealthy attitudes of the south 0 While bringing the states back together he insists that the southern states not be punished in any form however he does set certain requirements form them to uphold I They must ratify the 13th amendment abolishing slavery I And they must get 10 of the white males to sign their loyalty to the US O This outrages the republicans in congress I They now have the power to override any veto from Johnson I The republicans are in the majority control of reconstruction This shift in power results in a radical change in public policy mostly toward redefining citizenship O The 14th amendment and the 15th amendment are created I 14th defines citizenship to that if you are a natural born male you are no a citizen It also grants equal right to protection I 15th voting rights are given to all male citizens I Both these new amendments exclude women of all races The Freed Man s Bureau a support system for former slaves has been created 0 O The organization helps people to find jobs education and it also solves labor disputes One of its major roles is that it reunites former slaves with their families since most were separated when they were sold One of the major aspects that the origination did not do was redistribute land I Former slaves wanted to put the skills they already knew to work I They requests quotforty acers of land and a mule meaning some land and the appropriate tools to get started The Freed Man s Bureau didn t only help former slaves they also help poor white families African American s are now entering political roles which creates an interracial democracy 0 0 African American s started running for office and some were winning The main goal was to end segregation and gain equality through other measurements This outraged many White citizens and the creation of Black Codes occurred 0 The purpose of the Black Codes was to I Immobilize black people I Segregate public spaces I And criminalize those without jobs Labor and land reconstruction was taking place in the south 0 O O This created the concept of contracts and wage labor Created the industrial class I Without slaves driving the southern economy they need to catch up with the industrial north There was still resistance to Black land owners again something that the Freed Man s Bureau didn t do anything about The system of share cropping was developed 0 This is the result of reconstruction failing to break up former plantations The owners still have massive amounts of land but no one to work them 0 Both poor Black and White people entered this system and were called share croppers or tenants I This system didn t give out wages it worked by splitting the profits made annually between the owner and the tenant I However due to many factors such as illiteracy the tenants were taken advantage of constantly and were usually trapped in debt 0 The reason that land distribution didn t happen is because of the realization that it would benefit freed slaves the most Another addition to the Black Codes 0 Convict leasing Convicts could be used for labor so basically another form of slavery o Misdemeanors were now raised to a federal crime Lecture 4 12116 The reconstruction era has died and the next phase is the Redemption era 0 Redeeming the old customs traditions and honor There were many internal challenges during the reconstruction era for state governments such as o Redoing their constitutions I Removing clauses about slavery 0 Corruption within the reconstruction governments 0 Southern politics trying to sway the public against the government institutions as illegitimate I Institutions like the Freed Man s Bureau Zones of occupation were created in the southern states to prevent violence 0 The zones are the reach of an army post 0 The federal government occupies south to help reconstruction At this point the federal government starts to listen to the redeemers 0 They are saying the occupation of the south isn t worth the time and resources that it s taking Compromise of 1877 o The republicans can take the white house as long as they recall the rest of the troops in the south The end of reconstruction o The result was violence and oppression Voting rights start to be restricted again 0 The grandfather clause was created to ensure none of the freed slaves could vote I If your grandfather voted you can vote 0 Poll tax I There s now a fee to vote 0 Violence I Armed men are posted at the voting booths KKK o Acted as a military wing for the Democratic Party doing what the Democratic Party does politically 0 Some of the southern officials are part of the KKK which help them with funding Within 1520 years after reconstruction ended everything it did was undone in the south 0 Wilmington was the last reconstruction government I A group of armed white citizens seized control of the government I The federal government doesn t want to get involved as to not invoke more tension The law of segregation is born out of the fall of reconstruction and the rise of redemption


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