Criminology Chapter 6 Notes
Criminology Chapter 6 Notes SOC3890
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Pate on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC3890 at Clemson University taught by William White in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
Criminology Chapter 6 Social Structure Theories Learning Objectives Trading Places Extra Credit worth 5 Introduction social structure theory focuses on the association between social conditions and crime Durkheim said that crime is normal and linked to the differences within society Durkheim argued that crime can even be useful and on occasion healthy for society and calls attention to social ills From the Chicago school the study of social ecology led to the conclusion that social forces operating in urban areas create criminal interactions Socioeconomic Structure and Crime people in the US live in a strati ed society socia strata are created by unequal distribution of wealth power and prestige more than 40 million Americans now live in poverty social classes are segments of population that have similar portions of things and share attitudes values norms and lifestyles probems of lower class areas and its members inadequate housing and healthcare disrupted family lives underemployment and despair more prone to depression less likely to have achievement motivation less likely to put off immediate grati cation and less willing to stay in school 0 why constant bombardment by media linking material possessions to selfworth the poor are often unable to obtain these material possessions via legitimate means the underclass the crushing lifestyle of lower class areas produces a culture of poverty that is passed from one generation to the next 0 a worldwide underclass that was cut off from society its members lacking education and skills needed to be effective in modern society 0 economic disparity impacts members of the underclass over the course of their life spans child poverty poverty during early childhood may have a more severe impact than if experienced later in life numerous studies have documented the association between family poverty and children s health achievement and behavior impairments 0 about 19 of children live in poverty 0 children who live in extreme poverty race income and crime 0 in some neighborhoods up to half of all minority males are under criminal justice control 0 if minorities do commit crime they are more likely to be officially processed to the juvenile court than Caucasian youths today 1 in 9 black males between 20 and 34 is in jail or prison 0 in the inner cities more than half of all black men do not nish high school the overall dropout rate is 11 for black males quottruly disadvantagedquot the lowest levels of the underclass have this label Social Structure Theories ocial structure theory maintains that the social and economic forces operating in deteriorated lowerclass areas are the key determinants of criminal behavior patterns there are 3 branches of social structure theory 0 1 Social Disorganization Theory 0 focuses on the conditions within the urban environment that affect crime rates 0 disorganized areas are ones in which institutions of social control have broken down 0 indicators of disorganization include high unemployment school dropout rates deteriorated housing low income levels and large numbers of singleparent households 0 2 Strain Theory 0 crime is a function of the con ict between goals people have and their means to legally obtain them 0 while social and economic goals are common to people in all strata the ability to obtain these goals is class dependent 0 lower class members are unable to achieve goals via conventional means so they experience strain anger frustration and resentment 3 Cultural Deviance Theory 0 combines elements of strain and social disorganization 0 when you are in a socially disorganized area and you don t have the means to obtain what the media tells you that you need you try and society kicks you down you take on a psychological mindset that you have to steal to gain Social Disorganization Theory Generally whie social and economic goals are common to people in all strata the ability to obtain these goals is class dependent ower class members are unable to achieve goals via conventional means so they experience strain Cultural Deviance Theory Generally subcultures unique lower class cultures that develop in disorganized neighborhoods values and beliefs in con ict with conventional values cultural transmission process whereby subcultural values are handed down from one generation to the next Social Disorganization Theories ink crime rates to neighborhood ecological characteristics highest rates in neighborhoods that are highly transient mixeduse andor changing residents want to leave thus they become uninterested in community matters 0 personal relationships are strained because constant resident turnover weakens communications and blocks problemsolving and establishing common goals 0 gang formation because social institutions are frayed or absent law violating youth groups and gangs form and are free to recruit neighborhood youth Foundations of Social Disorganization the work of Shaw and McKay Chicago sociologists in the 19205 who link life in disorganized transitional urban areas to neighborhood crime rates these were the factors transitional neighborhoods concentric zones environmental factors 0 community deterioration poverty concentration 0 chronic unemployment community fear 0 community change Collective efficacy collective ef cacy cohesive communities with high levels of social control develop mutual trust and shared responsibilities quotit taking a villagequot community social capital 0 public have relationships with different entities around town no depth of history 0 local those that you are closest with three forms of collective ef cacy capital 0 1 informal social control peers families relatives who exert informal control by either awarding or withholding approval respect admiration 2 institutional social control schools churches and after school programs 0 3 public social control external control mechanism such as levels of policing The Effect of Collective Efficacy in areas where collective efficacy is high 0 children are less likely to become involved with deviant peers due to street efficacy the ability to use wits to avoid violent communications neighbors feel a sense of obligation to maintain order and are more willing to work hard to encourage informal social control 0 sense of community is high in areas where collective efficacy is low 0 the area is disorganized the population is transient interpersonal relationships remain super cial and people are less willing to help neighbors or exert inform social control 0 sense of community is low Strain Theories strain theorists believe that most people share similar values and goals but the ability to achieve these personal goals is strati ed by socioeconomic class 0 strain is related to criminal motivation generalized feeling of relative deprivation are precursors to high crime rates 0 two formulations of strain theories 0 structural strain economic and social sources of strain shape collective behavior 0 individual strain individual life experiences cause some people to suffer pain and misery feelings that are then translated into antisocial behavior The Concept of Anomie traced to Emile Durkheim an anomic society is one where rules of behavior values customs norms have broken down or become inoperative due to rapid social change or crisis normessness you don t know what s appropriate anomie is more likely to occur in societies moving from mechanical to organic solidarity mechanical solidarity preindustrial society traditions shared values and unquestioned beliefs manic solidarity postindustrial connected by interdependent needs and division of labor Merton s Theory of Anomie two culture elements interact to produce anomic conditions 0 1 cuturay de ned goals 0 high school college degree occupation 2 social approved means of obtaining them 0 how we get to those goals ocial adaptations each has own concept of the goals of society and how to attain them Social Adaptations of Anomie 1 conformity individuals embrace conventional social goals and have the means to attain them 2 innovation individuals accept social goals but reject or are incapable of attaining them through legitimate means 3 ritualism those that receive pleasure from practicing traditional ceremonies regardless of whether they have a goal 4 retreatism reject both the goals and means of society 5 rebellion substituting an alternative set of goals and means for convenUonannes Institutional Anomie Theory views antisocial behavior as a function of cultural and institutional in uences in US society success goal is pervasive in American culture American Dream a goal and a process lmpact of Anomie institutions that might otherwise control the exaggerated emphasis on nancial success such as religious or charitable institutions have been rendered powerless or obsolete there are three reasons social institutions have been undermined by the economy 0 1 devaluation noneconomic functions and roles have been devalued 2 role adversity when con ict emerges noneconomic roles become subordinated to economic roles 3 bottom line economic language standards and norms penetrate into noneconomic realms true or not General Strain Theory General Strain Theory GST individuals who feel stress and strain are more likely to commit crime Multiple Sources of Stress criminality is the result of negative affective states the anger frustration and adverse emotions that emerge in the wake of negative and destructive social relationships Cultural Deviance Theories combines social disorganization and strain to explain how people living in deteriorated neighborhoods react to social isolation and economic deprivation Theory of Differential Opportunity people in all strata of society share the same success goals however those in the lower class have limited means of achieving them because of differential opportunity kids are likely to join a gang Public Policy Implications social structure theory has a signi cant in uence on social policy 0 provide direct nancial aid via welfare and Aid to Dependent Children 0 improve the community structure in highcrime innercity areas such as Shaw s Chicago Area Project 0 Kennedy and Johnson Administration s War on Poverty 0 Operation Weed and Seed weed out criminals then seed with human services to the area
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