Criminology Chapter 9 Notes
Criminology Chapter 9 Notes SOC3890
Popular in Criminology
Popular in Sociology
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Pate on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC3890 at Clemson University taught by William White in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Clemson University.
Reviews for Criminology Chapter 9 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/24/16
Criminology Chapter 9 Developmental Theories Life Course Latent Trait and Trajectory Foundations of Developmental Theory generaly criminologists struggle to understand the origins onset and the persistence continuation of career criminals thus developmental criminology attempts to provide a more global vision of a criminal career encompassing its onset continuation and termination the Glueck research forms the foundations for recent life course theories that integrate biological psychological and social factors however before this was the case Hans Eyseneck published Crime and Personality in 1964 and proclaimed that antisocial behavior was linked to psychological conditions that were the product of heredity this was very controversial and upset the sociologist who controlled the eld at that time the Glueck research focused on early onset of delinquency as a harbinger of a criminal career it identi ed personal and social factors associated with persistent offending the most important being family relations this research came to be ignored for 30 years as criminological focus shifted to social and socialpsychological factors remember the struggle between hereditary and social in uence theorists Sampson and Laub rediscovered the Glueck legacy during the 1990s criminoogists then focused their attentions on criminal careers and two distinct viewpoints were identi ed 0 1 the life course view and o 2 the latent trait view today Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck are considered the founders of the developmental branch of criminological theory test question today three distinct viewpoints on criminal careers have evolved 1 life course theory views criminality as a dynamic process in uenced by a multitude of individual characteristics traits and social experiences 0 2 latent trait theory holds that human development is controlled by a stable propensity or quotmaster traitquot present at birth or soon after falling out of favor o 3 trajectory theory suggests there are multiple trajectories in a criminal career which is the broader theory developmental or life course test ques on Life Course Fundamentals even as toddlers people begin relationships and behaviors that will determine their adult life course some individuals are incapable of maturing in a reasonable and timely fashion because of family environmental or personal problems life course theories view transitions from one stage of life to another as sometimes bumpy and state that one s propensity to commit crime is neither stable nor constant rather it is a developmental process based on how they perceive and understand all the different aspects of those transitions because of this developmental process there are three main theoretical assumptions 1 a positive life experience may help some criminals desist social bondcontrol mechanism 2 a negative life experience may cause some criminals to resume trigger a kid witnessing a tragic scene and played the music he would listen to when his parents were ghting but the tapes were ruined in a re so he had to recreate the tapes which lead to him acting out the roles of his father killing his mother 3 criminal careers are developmental because people are in uenced by the behavior of those around them does disruption promote criminality it is strongly believed that disruptions in life s major transitions can be destructive and ultimately can promote criminality those already at risk due to socioeconomic problems or family dysfunction are the most susceptible people are in uenced by different factors as they mature negative life events can become cumulative changing life in uences the nature of social interactions change as people mature at rst family relations may be the most in uential in later adolescence school and peer relations predominate some antisocial children manage to nd stable work and to maintain intact marriages as adults others who develop arrest records and get involved with the wrong crowd may nd themselves limited to menial jobs and at risk for criminal careers the factors that produce crime and delinquency at one point in the life cycle may not be relevant at another among the life course concepts are 1 problem behavior syndrome 2 pathways to crime 3 age of onset 4 continuity of crime Life Course Concepts Problem Behavior Syndrome 0 crime is one among a group of interrelated antisocial behaviors that cluster together 0 it tvpicallv also involves o family dysfunction sexual and physical abuse substance abuse smoking precocious sexuality and early pregnancy educational underachievement suicidal thoughtsattempts sensation seeking unemployment people who suffer from one of these conditions typically exhibit many symptoms of the rest Pathways to Crime 0 career criminals may travel more than a single road 0 to understand this criminologists must pay attention to the basic questions of how a criminal career unfolds 0 how it begins 0 why it is sustained 0 how it comes to an end 0 in search of the answers to these questions Rolf Loeber has identi ed three distinct paths to a criminal career 0 1 authority con ict pathway 0 2 covert pathway 0 3 overt pathway 0 each of these paths may lead to a sustained deviant career some people enter two or even three pathways simultaneously 0 ongoing debate some criminologists believe that most criminals are generalists while others have found evidence that more serious offenders tend to specialize in a narrower range of antisocial activity Age of OnsetContinuity of Crime 0 most life course theories assume three things 0 1 the seeds of a criminal career are planted early in life 0 2 early onset of deviance strongly predicts later and more serious criminality o 3 the earlier the onset of crime the more frequent varied and sustained the criminal career 0 early starters vs late bloomers 0 while some kids begin their deviant life course at an early age others do not 0 late bloomermay stay out of trouble in adolescence until late in their teenage years and then become violent chronic persisters OOOOOOOO LDCDNOWU39lbULJNl l 0 kids who start in delinquency at an older age were actually the ones more likely to get involved in adult offending AdolescentLimited Offenders and Life Course Persisters Adolescentlimiteds quottypical teenagersquot rebellious teenage behavior 0 Life course persisters small group begin offending at a very early age and continue to offend well into adulthood Suobortind research 0 life course persisters offend more frequently and engage in a greater variety of antisocial acts than other offenders 0 life course persisters manifest signi cantly more mental health problems Theories of the Criminal Life Course integrated theories that incorporate social personal and developmental factors into complex explanations of human behavior agegraded theory of informal social control reanalyzed the data originally collected by the Gluecks AgeGraded Theory Principles 0 individual traits and childhood experiences are important to understand the onset of delinquent and criminal behavior experiences in young adulthood and beyond can redirect criminal trajectories or paths 0 repeat negative experiences create a condition called cumulative disadvantage positive life experiences and relationships can help a person become reattached to society 0 two critical turning points are marriage and career 0 another vital feature that helps people desist from crime is quothuman agencyquot 0 some people persist in crime because they nd it lucrative others choose not to participate because they nd other more conventional paths deemed more bene cial and rewarding Traiectories Transitions and Turning Points 0 Trajectories are longterm patterns in life while transitions are quotshortterm events embedded in trajectoriesquot criminal careers are a dynamic process in which an important life event can 0 1 produce a transition in the life course 0 2 change the direction a person39s life course trajectory they refer to these as turning points 0 social capital positive relations with individuals and institutions that are life sustaining The Marriage Factor 0 people who cannot sustain secure marital relations are less likely to desist from crime 0 marriage both transforms people and reduces their opportunity to commit crimes 0 helps cut off a person s past provides new relationships creates new levels of supervision and helps the former offender develop structured routines focused on family life and reduces exposure to deviant peers o the marriage bene t may also be intergenerational Latent Trait Theories Latent Trait a personal attribute or characteristic that controls their inclination or propensity to commit crimes suspected latent traits include o defective intelligence 0 impulsive personality 0 genetic abnormalities 0 physicalchemical functioning of the brain 0 environmental in uences on brain function 0 latent trait theories explain the ow of crime over the life cycle as being the result of a stable propensity or quotmaster traitquot 0 this trait may be present at birth or established early in life 0 two types 0 constant some latent trait theorists maintain that this master trait is in exible stable and unchanging throughout a person s lifetime 0 evolving others recognizing that under some circumstances a latent trait can be altered in uenced or changed by experiences and interactions General Theory of Crime GTC o the propensity to commit crime is tied directly to an impulsive personality and a lack of selfcontrol what causes impulsivity 0 some research traces the root cause of poor selfcontrol to inadequate childrearing practices that begin soon after birth and can in uence neural development 0 other research shows that an impulsive personality may have physical or social roots or perhaps both 0 this theory explains o 1 why some people who lack selfcontrol can escape criminality o 2 why some people who have selfcontrol might not escape criminality o 3 the propensity to commit crime remains stable throughout a person s life o 4 change in the frequency of criminal activity is purely a function of change n criminal opportunity Evaluating Developmental Theories the theories in this chapter share some common ground a criminal career must be understood as a passage along which people travel the factors affecting a criminal career may include o 1 structural factors socialization factors biological factors psychological factors opportunity factors peer relations 0 eweww
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'