BIOL 124 Chapter 1 Reading
BIOL 124 Chapter 1 Reading BIOL 124 2D1
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BIOL 124 2D1
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabelle Anonas on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 124 2D1 at George Mason University taught by Dr. Cynthia Beck in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Science at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 01/24/16
BIOL 124 January 25 Chemical level simplest Body s organization hierarchy o Atoms combine to form molecules ie water proteins and then OBJECTIVES become organelles 1 Name different levels of structural cellular level organization that make up the human 0 All cells have common functions bOdY and explain the FEIatiOHShiPS o Vary in size shape and function in 2 List the 11 organ systems identify their body components and explain the major Tissue level functions 0f eaCh System 0 Groups of similar cells with common function 4 basic tissues 0 Epithelium covers body surface and lines its cavities 0 Muscle provides movement 0 Connective tissue supports and protects body organs 0 Nervous tissue provides rapid internal communication thorugh electrical impulses mm o discrete strecture composed of at least two tissue types 4 is more common that performs a specific function for the body 0 extremely complex functions become possible 0 Stomach o Epithelium lining produces digestive juices 0 Wall is muscle which churns stomach contents 0 Connective tissue reinforces soft muscle walls 0 Nerve fibers increase digestion by stimulating muscles to What are the requrements for life OBJECTIVES 1 List the functional characteristics necessary to maintain life in humans 2 List survival needs of body contract and the glands to secrete more Organ system level Organs works together to accomplish common purpose Cardiovascular integumentary skeletal muscular nervous endocrine lymphatic respiratory digestive urinary and reproductive 0 Heart and blood vessels of cardiovasulcar system circulate blood continuously and carry oxygen and nutrients to all body cells Organismal level highest Sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive All complex animals like humans Maintain their boundaries Move Respond to environmental changes Take in and digest nutrients Carry out metabolism Dispose of wastes Reproduce Grow All body cells are interpendent because we are multicellular organisms whose vital body functions are divided among seveal organ systems Maintaining boundaries internal environment remains distinct from external environment all body cells are surrounded by selectively permable membrane 0 whole body is encolsed and protected by skin integumen tary system Movement 0 activities promoted by muscular system 0 skeletal system provides bony framework that muscles pull on 0 also occurs with blood food and urine cardiovascular digestive and urinary 0 at cellular level muscle cell abaility is called contractility Responsiveness excitability o ability to sense changes stimuli and respond 0 nervous system is move involved with responsiveness Digestion o the breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to comple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood 0 cardiovascular system carries nurtient rich blood through body Metabolism 0 state of change 0 includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells 0 breaking down substances into simpler building blocks catabolism o synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substancesanabolism 0 using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP 0 dependent of digestive and respiratory systems to make nutrients and oxygen available to blood 0 dependent of cardiovascular system to distribute it through the body 0 regulated by hormones endocrine system Excretion 0 process of removing wastes from body 0 digestive system disposes indigestible food 0 urinary system disposes nitrogen containing metabolic waste 0 Carbon dioxide by product of cellular respiration carried in blood to lung and is exhaled Reproduction o Occurs at cellular and organismal level 0 Cellularorginal cell divides procudes 2 identical daughter cells and is used to body growth or repair 0 Sperm and egg for offspring o Regulated by endocrine system Growth 0 Increase in size of body part or whole organism 0 Increased number of cells 0 True growth constructive activities at faster rate than destructive Survival Needs 0 Ultimate goals of all body systems is to maintain life 0 Nutrientsfood ocygen water and appropriate temperature and atmospheric pressure Nutrients 0 Taken in via diet 0 Contain chemical substances for energy and cell building 0 Plant derived foods are rich in carbohydrates vitamins and minerals o Carbs are main energy source for body cells 0 Animal derived foods are rich in protein and fat 0 Fats provide energy reserve Oxygen 0 Unless oxygen is present most nutrients are useless o Chemcal reactions release energy from foods are oxidative reactions and require oxygen Water 0 5060 ofbody weight is water 0 necessary for chemical bodily reactions and uid base for body secretionsand excretions 0 obtained by ingestion 0 lost through evaporation from lungs and skin in body excretions Normal Body Temperature 0 chemical reactions continue life sustaining rates for normal body temperatures to be maintained 0 metabolic rates drop as body temperature drops Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure 0 the force that air exerts on the surface of the body 0 breathing and gas exchange in lungs depends on appropriate atmospheric pressure 0 too much oxygen is toxic Homeostasis is the ability to maintain HomeOStaSiS is maintain by negative relatively stable internal conditions even feedback though the outside world continuously OBJECTIVES Changes Define homeostasis and explain its significance Describe how negative and positive feedback maintain body homeostasis Describe the relationship between homeostatic inbalance and disease 0 Dynamic state of equilibrium or balance 0 Blood levels of vital nutrients must continuously be present 0 Heart activity and blood pressure must be monitored 0 Waste cannot accumulate o Controlled body temperature Homeostatic Control 0 Communication is essential o Nervous and endocrine systems I Neural electircal impulses or bloodborne hormones as information carriers 0 Variable all homeostatic control mechanisms are processes involving at least three components that work together o 1 receptorsome type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes called stimuli by senting information input to the second component control center 0 input ows from the receptor to the control center along the afferent pathway 0 control center determines the set point level of range at which a variable is to be maintained 0 analyzes the input it receives and determines appropriate response 0 information output ows from control center to third component effector along eferent pathway I afferent approaches efferent exits o Effector provides means for control center s responseoutput to stimulus 0 Results of response feed back to in uence effect of stimulus 0 Reducing it so whole control process if shut off 0 Or enhancing it so whole process continues at faster rate Negative Feedback Mechanisms Most homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback mechanisms Output shuts off original effect of stimulus or reduces its intensity Cause variabe to change in a direction opposite to initial change returning to ideal value Withdrawal re ex like pulling hand away from broken glass Endocrine system control blood sugar with insulin Body s ability to regulate its internal environment is fundamental Goal of preventing severe changes within body Positive Feedback Mechanisms Response to enhancing original stimulus so response is accelerated Anatomical terms describe body directions regions and planes OBJECTIVES 1 Describe the anatomical position 2 Use correct anatomica terms to describe body directions regions and body planes or sections 0 Positive because change results proceeds in same direction as initial change causes variable to deviate further from original value 0 Maintain some physiological function or keep blood chemicals within narrow ranges 0 Control infrequent events that don t require continuous adjustments 0 Set off a series of events that may be selfperpetuating 0 Once initiated amplifying or waterfall effect 0 Often called cascades Homeostatic imbalance o Diseases are disturbances 0 When negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over Anatomical positionbody slightly erect with feet slightly apart thumbs point away from body Superiorcranialtoward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body above Inferiorcaudalaway from the head or toward the lower part of a structure or the body below AnteriorventralToward or at the front of the body in front of Posteriordorsal Toward or at the back of the body behind MedialToward or at the midline of the body on the side of Lateral Away from the midline of the body on the outer side of Intermediate Between a more medial and a more lateral structure Proximal Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Distal Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Superficial external Toward or at the body surface Deep internal Away from the body surface more internal Regional Terms 0 Used to designate specific areas Axial makes up main axis of body head neck and trunk Appendicular appendages or limbs which attach to axis Body planes and sections 0 Lie at right angles to one another Sagittal plane vertical plane that divides body into right and left parts 0 Lies on midline is median plane or midsagittal plane 0 Offset from midline is parasagittal planes Frontal planescoronal planes lie vertically divide body into anterior and posterior parts Transversecross sectionhorizontal plane run horizontally from right to left divide body into superior and inferior parts Oblique sections cuts made diagonally between horizontal and vertical planes Many Internal organs lie in membranelined Ventral Body Cavity more anterior and larger body caVitieS of closed body cavities OBJECTIVES 1 Locate and name the major body cavities and their subdivisions and associated membranes and list the major organs contained within them 2 Name the four quadrants or nine regions of abdominopelvic cavity and list the organs they contain 0 Has two major subdivisions thoracic and abdominopelvic 0 Houses interal organs viscera Thoracic cavity superior subdivision surrounded by ribs and chest muscles 0 Further subdivided into lateral pleural cavities o Envelopes a lung 0 Medial mediastinum I Contains pericardial cavity 0 Encloses heart 0 Surrounds remaining thoracic organs 0 Separated from more inferior abdominopelvic cavity by diaphragm o Abdominal cavity superior portion 0 Stomach intestines spleen liver and other organs 0 Pelvic cavity inferior part lies in bony pelvis and contains the urinary bladder some reproductive organs and rectum Membranes in Ventral Body Cavity Serosaserious membrane walls of ventral body cavity and oter thin surfaces of organs it contains are covered by thin double layered membrane Parietal serosa part of membrane lining the cavity walls 0 Folds on itself to form visceral serosa and covers organs 9 Abdominopelvic regions Umbilical region centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus navel Epigastric region located superior to umbilical region Hypogastric pubic region located inferior to umbilical region Inguinal Regions right and left iliac located lateral to hypogastric region Right and left lumbar regions lie lateral to the umbilical region Right and left hypochondriac regions lie lateral to epigastric region and deep to the ribs Other Body Cavities Oral and digestive cavities mouthdigestive organs anus Nasal cavity posterior to nose part of respiratory system Orbital orbits cavities in skull and house eyes anterior Middle ear cavities lie medial of eardrums contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to hearing receptors Synovial cavities joint cavities enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround freely movable joints of body
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