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GPH210 Week 02 Note

by: Phoebe Chang

GPH210 Week 02 Note GPH 210

Marketplace > Geography > GPH 210 > GPH210 Week 02 Note
Phoebe Chang
GPA 4.28
Society and Environment
Elizabeth Larson

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About this Document

Environmental Ethics, Economics and Policy
Society and Environment
Elizabeth Larson
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Chang on Sunday January 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GPH 210 at a university taught by Elizabeth Larson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.

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Date Created: 01/24/16
GPHZlO Introduction Spring SEMESTER 2016 Professor Dr Elizabeth Larson Elite Notetaker Phoebe phoebeestudysouptom 1 Damnation 0 USA I Exact number unknown I 75k dams in US Army Corps of Engineers National Inventory of Dams NID I The most comprehensive inventory of dams I Some provides hydroelectricity o Hetch Hetchy Valley I Original thoughts 0 Lots of snow in Yosemite National Park and surrounding area 0 Ideal geological structure as dam to collect melted snow 0 Support San Franciscan water shortage I Memorial Meeting 0 President Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir Glacier Point Yosemite 0 Agree to preserve the valley I Earthquake hit San Francisco 0 Debate started again until 1913 o O shaughnessy Dam was completed and filed byJuly 1923 2 Changing Views of Humans and Nature 0 Preindustrial Views I Animism 0 Living and nonliving objects have souls 0 Common for indigenous people religious I Domestication o Humans alter ecosystem for their benefits by owning animals and plants 0 Eg Crop production increases therefore more food to eat 0 Agriculture society gt Market society I Monotheistic Religion 0 Judaism Christianity Islam a Emphasize the centrality of human in nature b Anthropocentric humans are the boss among all creations o Hinduism Buddhism Shintoism a Emphasize harmony between human actions and nature b Biocentric humans are inseparable from nature 0 Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution I New technology and scientific method blooming o Steamdriven machines o Urbanization I Famous people and ideas 0 Voltaire gt Humanity relationship with God 0 JeanBaptiste Lamarck gt Human was one of many products of a process of evolution Charles Darwin gt Theory of evolution natural selection Botany Zoology gt Connection between organisms and environment David Thoreau gt The discipline of ecology George Perkins gt Man and Nature book 0 Conservation vs Preservation I Conservationist View o Gifford Pinchot 0 Public resources should be used and managed in a sustainable way to provide the best benefit to most people 0 Eg Sustainable use of natural resources I Preservationist View a John Muir 0 Parks and public lands should preserve the nature in its original state 0 Eg Not intervening with the nature at all I Debates o Aldo Leopold both conservation and preservation 0 Rachel Carson DDT silent spring 0 Paul Ehrlich population bomb 0 Edward O Wilson loss of plant and animal species 0 Modern Era I Rio Earth Summit 1992 I Global politics debates I Understand dependence on ecosystems a Media warning 0 Environmental trends 3 Environmental Ethics 0 Three Ethical Traditions I Virtue ethics Plato 0 An action is right if it s motivated by virtues like kindness honesty loyalty justice 0 Sort of anthropocentric humancentered I Consequencebased ethics o Emphasize outcome 0 Right pleasure benefit satisfaction 0 Wrong pain harm dissatisfaction o Eg Utilitarianism conservationist a Right actions delivering the most good to most people I Dutybased ethics Immanuel Kant 0 Right or wrong is based on laws and rules lying is always wrong 0 Eg Ten Commandments o 2 Types of Values I Intrinsic value 0 Person organism objects are valued for its own sake I Instrumental value 0 Things are valued since it helps us to get or achieve something else 0 5 Environmental Ethics I Anthropocentric ethics 0 Humans have intrinsic value 0 Everything else have instrumental value c Egconservationistview I Biocentric ethics 0 Intrinsic value for all livingnonliving creatures o Debates a A thing have intrinsic value must be able to experience pleasure and satisfaction motived animal rights movement b All organisms that is product of natural evolution has intrinsic value jellyfish dogs I Ecocentric ethics 0 Intrinsic value on all communities and ecosystems collection of organisms 0 Deep ecology movement a Human has no right to diminish the diversity and richness of ecosystems except to meet vital needs I Ecofeminism o Francoise d Eaubonne o Argued feminine concerns for the interrelationships among livingnonliving lives and environment Abuse of both environment and women from male domination Eg Wangari Maathai a Deforestation in Kenya deprived women of fuel b Led to soil erosion at where they farmed I Environmentaljustice 0 Ensure people are treated fairly regardless of race gender or economic status in management of natural resources Related to international negotiations on global issues Concerning developing countries Eg UN Environment Programme UNEP a Established to support international environmental ethic to grow promote sustainability and protection to the Earth 4 The Environment and the Marketplace 0 Economic Systems I Subsistence economy o The most basic system 0 Society meets their needs from environment without accumulating wealth o Eg Huntergatherers fishermen farmers etc I Market economy 0 Production and consumption of goods and services happen in markets with certain prices and currency c Free market economy a No taxes laws subsidies and government involved b Eg United States partially o Planned economy a Government takes control over prices services and level of production b Black market operates outside of gov control C Eg North Korea Cuba China 0 Supply and Demand I Commodities o The goods or services that are valued and exchanged I Neoclassical economic theory 0 Price and production is depending on the supply and demand of the goods and services c The higher the price the higher the supply the lower the demand vice versa 0 Therefore there s an equilibrium price and supply for the market 0 Economic Value I How much a consumer is willing to pay for the commodity o The more abundant of a commodity the less beneficial it is for a buyer 0 The more immediate ofa commodity the more beneficial it is for a buyer o The more necessary ofa commodity the more likely for a buyer to purchase I Discount rate 0 Decline of economic values o Affected by a Opportunity cost the worthiness when comparing the item to buying the best alternative use of that money b Risk the uncertainty of the future C Consumer need I Externalities 0 Pros and cons to other people than buyers and sellers when producing a commodity o Positive externalities a Third party benefits from an economic transaction b Eg Timber company maintain healthy forest while maximizing profits of harvested timbers o Negative externalities a Harmscosts to others b Eg Neighborhood of timber company pollution from their production DDT issues 0 Unknown Costs and Benefits I Risky Behaviors o 50 years ago we didn t know how harmful can cigarettes be I Limited Resources 0 Nonrenewable resources cannot be replenished at all or in short period of time 5 Valuing Ecosystem 0 Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services I Marginal value c People s willingness to pay for an action comparing to an alternative 0 Eg Are you willing to pay more to be more green I Travelcost valuation o People39s willingness to pay for transportation and living to visit certain ecosystem 0 Including cost of building maintaining roads and infrastructure of the destinations I Hedonic valuation 0 Environmental alternatives affect market price of real estate 0 Eg Are you willing to pay more for having a national park around I Contingent valuation o People s willingness to pay for an ecosystem service o Eg Are you willing to pay for conservation of an endangered species 0 Ecological Valuation I The potential cost of the loss or degradation of an ecosystem service I Eg Deforestation leads to flooding I Areas with forests that are along rivers in tropical and temperate regions have the greatest ecological value I Natural capital 0 All resources on Earth that are needed and depended on to produce the ecosystem services 0 Base of ecological valuation o Wealth of Nations I Gross domestic product GDP 0 Total value of goods and services produced by a country s citizen population size 0 Measure of one country s economic status 0 Basis for financial aid loans to nations I Genuine Progress Indicator GPI o GPD the economic value of enhancementsdegradations to the environment 0 Increase of GPI by reforestation health care etc 0 O 6 Environmental Policy 0 Overview I Guidance for decisions and actions that influence environmental conditions or processes I The Policy Cycle 0 Develop and revise policies through steps a Problem definition gt Agenda setting hearings debates lobbying gt Policy development gt Implementation gt Policy evaluation termination or revision 0 Actions I Regulatory Mandates 0 Laws setting standards for actions o Eg CAFE regulations I Incentives o Offering appealing to encourage actions 0 Eg Hybrid cars solar panels geothermal heat pumps small windenergy systems I Marketbased Policies 0 Using economic markets for actions o Eg Cap and trade a Rights to exceed a certain law needs to be bought b US Clean Air Act Amendment 1990 I Volunteerism 0 Free behavior from a community 0 Eg US Forest Service encourage the control of wildfire and stop littering o 8 Issues of Policy Decision Framework I Government vs Individual 0 How much control should region and individuals have o Eg Laws on recycling I Competing public values 0 What s value should be the priority 0 Eg Economic benefits for the timber man vs Environmental benefits for the neighborhood I Precautionary principle 0 Uncertain yet reasonable evidence needs to be taken under considerationaction if it ll put human health or environment at risk All action might lead to different risks Eg Banning pesticide lower the risk of health effects yet higher the risk of not having enough crops I Governmentinvolvement 0 Federal State County City 0 Eg Cali and NY argued states should have their regulation on air quality I Government power overlap 0 Good when a lot of departments are taking care of something together 0 Bad when overlaps are poorly defined and responsibility is confusing o Eg Flow of water in rivers involves Bureau of Reclamation and Army Corps of Engineers I Selfish Actions o Tragedy of the common a Common resources are likely to be overexploited if people are selfish b Eg land owned by several families they all want to put as much animals on the land as possible o Not in my backyard a Protest against landfill around neighborhood I Strategy for a good end 0 Debates on what strategy is the best to achieve certain environmental outcomes 0 Eg C02 emission for companies and individuals I Political power relationships 0 Some state country or company or party might have more say since the distribution of resources is unfair o Eg fossil fuel distribution is unfair 7 US Environmental Law and Policy 0 Governmental Functions three branches of government I Legislative The Congress 0 Approves president39s budget and appointments 0 Approvesjudges appointments impeachment o Removesjudges by impeachment I judicial The Courts 0 Enforcement and interpretation of laws 0 Constitutionality of legislation I Executive The President 0 Laws are signed and enacted by president 0 Appointsjudges with congressional approval 0 Constitution and Environmental Policy I Articles and amendments o Article 1 a The right for federal gov to regulate foreign and interstate commerce b Eg transportation water flow and quality mining natural energy resources etc o Article 4 a The right for gov to make laws for public lands b Eg national parks forests wildlife refuges etc o The Fifth Amendment of the Constitution a The right for gov to take property for public use with compensation for owner b Eg Eminentdomain o The Fourteenth Amendment a After Civil War b Require states to provide legal due process and equal protection to all citizens 0 Basis for environmental justice 8 International Environmental Law and Policy 0 Environmental laws I Sovereignty o A country can do whatever they like in their border as long as it doesn t violate international laws which they agreed on 0 Three forms of international laws a Customary international laws i Most countries in the world accept the law ii A country cannot use their territory in a way that heat other countries iii Eg Japan has to notify everyone when the Fukushima incident happened so everyone can be alerted b Conventional international laws i Legally binding conventions or treaties amount countries ii Eg Convention on Nature Protection Wildlife Preservation protect migratory birds C Judicial international laws i Standards of countries actions are based on international court and tribunals decisions ii Eg European Court ofJustice World Trade Organization 0 International Institutions I Environmental laws policies o The United Nations a The most important organization b 54 Nations in the social and economic council o Regional Consortia a Different regions formed different organization with each countries b Eg European Union Organization of American States etc I Financial laws policies 0 Multinational Development Banks a Provide financial and technical assistance to countries for economic social and environmental development b Eg World Bank African Development Bank World Trade Organization I NongovernmentalOrganization o No governmental involvement huge influence on international environmental policy 0 Eg Greenpeace World Wildlife Fund etc


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