PSY 124 Chapter 1 Notes
PSY 124 Chapter 1 Notes PSY 124 - 03
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layne Franklin on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 124 - 03 at University of Indianapolis taught by Jordan Sparks Waldron in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Fndtns/Psyc Science I:Methods in Psychlogy at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Psychology 124 Chapter 1 Notes Research in the Behavioral Sciences Goal in Behavioral ResearchStudy Behavior Predict Behavior Explain Behavior Features of the Scientific Enterprise 0 Systematic Empiricism 0 Structured so that 0 Public Verification 0 When does scientific knowledge start to exist 0 1St question for claims of uncertain validity 0 Peer Review a stringent criterion 0 Solvable Problems 0 Problems vs Mysteries Pinker 1997 Psychology Has Theories 0 A scienti c theory is a 0 set of interrelated statements about some phenomenon in the natural world describes and de nes key concepts speci es the relationships between those concepts makes predictions about future outcomes that are testable hypothesis testable prediction offers explanations for those outcomes Characteristics of Good Theories Proposes causal relationships Coherent Parsimonious Generates testable hypothesis that can be disconfirmed Stimulates other researchers to conduct research Solves an existing theoretical question Misconceptions About Theories A theory explains one speci c event A theory is just an educated guess How Theories Are Tested Theories too broad for comprehensively testing in one study 0 Hypothesis Speci c expectations or predictions about how variables relate to one another 0 Hypothesis must be testable predictive falsi able PostHoc Explanations Research is Not Created Equal 0 Quantity vs Quality 0 Methodological Pluralism 0 Ex adolescent drinking 0 Use multiple methods amp research designs to test a theory 0 Gives us than findings that are based on a single method Research is Dynamic 0 New theories explain facts old theories could explain plus new facts 0 Can theories be PROVEN 0 Can theories be DISPROVEN 0 Is genuine knowledge possible 0 Possible but provisional Lilienfeld 2005 Testing Ourselves 0 Obtaining support for a hypothesis means that the theory from which the hypothesis is derived is true TF 0 Hypotheses may be disconfirmed even if the theory they stem from is true TF 0 The peer review process eliminates concerns about the strength of a study s research methods TF The Speci city of Hypotheses 0 Conceptual Definition 0 DescriptionDefinition of the Concept 0 Abstract Theoretical Definitions 0 Operational Definition 0 Specifying how a concept will be measuredmanipulated in a study 0 Concrete Situation Specific 0 Construct 0 HypotheticalTheoretical entities that are described by people usually scientists to explain the world around us Advantages of Science Why are some undergraduates more and others less interest in psychological research Vittengl et al Openness to experienceacademic aptitude Plans to enter a PhD program Perceived relevance of research to postundergraduate activities Advantages of Science Protection against PSEUDOSCIENCE Claims that appear scientific but violate the basic assumptions of the scientific process Defining Features Ad hoc hypotheses immunize claims from falsification No selfcorrection No peer review Confirmation over refutation Burden of proof on critic Limited connectivity Reliance on anecdote and testimonial Social Experiment Participant selection 0 Comparison techniques 0 Data collectionAnalysis 0 Conclusions drawn 0 Use of literatureexperts 0 Other NotesComments
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