AMERICAN GOVERNMENT WEEK 2
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT WEEK 2 18554
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Dwayne Young on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 18554 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Kristina La Plant in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see POLS in Political Science at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
POLS NOTES WEEK TWO KRISTINA LA PLANT AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AMERICAN GOVERNMENT 11916 AGENDA FOR TODAY 1 Historical Context 2 Colonial Response to Brit taxes 3 First Gov t Articles of Confederation 4 Debate on New Constitution exam question what was the first governing document Articles of Confederation FRENCH amp INDIAN WAR 1756 1763 Turning point in British colonial relations British Parliament enforces taxes on colonies to ameliorate war debt Philosophical issue right to be taxed without representation Colonies had to pay the major part of the war which is why the British parliament taxes them so heavily TAX INITIATIVES ON COLONIES Sugar act of 1764 Anything with sugar was taxed heavily coke would be 20 if that tax were applied today Currency Act 1764 Basically your paper money is not worth anything according to Great Britain Money was taxed heavily since it was made out of paper Quartering Act 1765 soldiers of the British Parliament were allowed to stay and reside in peoples homes The colonies were outraged by this act Declaratory Act 1766 Was made to reform the currency act but did not do much The rest of the Tax initiatives Stamp Act 1765 Townshend Acts 1767 Tea Act 1773 The colonies were hurting after the war because of not only the taxes but because the British parliament were enforcing the laws by placing their troops in the colonies BOSTON TEA PARTY 1773 Tea was dumped off the side of a British boat one night in the Boston harbor a group of men dressed up as indians so they could take the blame off the colonies and point the blame towards indians But the real reason of this incident was because the colonies were tired of paying the taxes the heavy that the British Parliament so to not pay for the Tea they dumped it off the side of the Harbor BOSTON TEA AFTER PARTY The Intolerable Acts Coercive acts 1774 The British Congress completely dissolved the Massachusetts Government and stripped them of any governing power FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 1776 Key Concepts Social contract Idea of consent Natural Rights Life Liberty and Pursuit of happiness The Declaration dissolves colonial allegiance with Great Britain however it did not create a new system of government ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION 1777 Key Features Strong Autonomous State 1 state 1 vote States coin their money May enter treaties Weak Central Government No power to tax No executive Cant regulate trade Unanimous consent required Why was the Articles of Confederation so weak The central government had no money had no army or militia and they had no international relations with other countries making trading and exporting very hard and another problem was Daniel Shay He throws a rebellion and caused havoc because the government screwed him over He was a revolutionary war hero FRAMING A CONSTITUTION TWO VISIONS COMPONENT VIRGINIA PLAN NEW JERSEY PLAN GREAT COMPROMISE Bicameral with lower LEGISLATIVE Bicameral and Unicameral and e ual chamber proportional STRUCTURE Proportional q and upper chamber equal Unitary national Plural national executive National judiciary EXECUTIVE executive chosen by chosen by legislature chosen by president legislature with consent of senate National judiciary National judiciary JUDICIARY Natlonal JUd39C39ary chosen by executive chosen by president chosen by legislature with consent of senate CONSITUTIONAL CONTROVERSIES ANTIFEDERALIST feared centralized government FEDERALISTS favored strong central government with separated powers THE THREEFIFTHS COMPROMISE One slave counted as three fifths of a person THE BILL OF RIGHTS first ten amendments of the constitution this was made so the antifederalist could sign the constitution 1790 census 654000 slave population in South 392000 The entire slave population of the south tolerated more than the most populous state in the North Massachusetts JAMES MADISON FEDERALIST 51 Ambition must be made to counteract ambition Federalist 51 was one of the federalist papers that James Madison was a part of ARTICLES OF THE CONSTITUTION Article I The Legislative Enumerated Powers Necessary and Proper Clause Commerce Clause Article II The Executive Take Care Clause Article III The Judiciary The Supremacy Clause the Constitution is the law of the land states are not allowed to make laws that contradict the national law CONTINUED FROM LAST WEEK 12116 FEDERALISM RECAP WEEK ONE THE PURPOSE OF GOVERNMENT TYPES OF GOVERNMENT M WHAT IS FEDERALISM Important key question A system of government where power is divided between the national federal government and various regional state governments LEGISLATIVE EXECUTIVE JUDICIARY 39 Makes Laws 39 Carries out laws 39 Evaluates Laws 39 Checks on the Judicial Branch 39 Propose laws 39 Declare acts of congress 39 Can impeach and remove 39 veto laws unconstitutional judges 39 call sessions of congress 39 Declare executive decisions 39 propose amendments to 39 Negotiate foreign treaties unconstitutional overrule judicial decisions 39 appoint federal judges 39 approves appointments of 39 grant pardons to federal federal judges offenders House Of Representatives President Supreme Court Senate Vice President Cabinet Other Federal Courts m Executive Nathan Deal House180 Senate 56 Jus ces7 FEDERALISM THE ULTIMATE PARTY FOUL National Decare war Admit new states Reguate interstate commerce Set standards for weights and measurements Established post offices Print money Enter into treaties with foreign governments State Establish schools Reguate trade within state lssue marriage licenses Ratify amendments to the constitution Establish local governments Assume powers not delegated to the national government AMBITION VS AMBITION History on the struggle power between federal government and state government McCulloch V Maryland A supreme court case where Maryland issued a lawsuit against a national bank because the united states was taking money exclusively from this bank Congress uses Article 1 power to coin money Maryland passed a law any bank not chartered in Maryland will be taxed The Supreme court decided that it was Necessary and Proper to create banks under the necessary and proper clause Gibbons V Ogden Federal government was issuing permits to run steamboats in New York this upset others who had state issued permits from New York The Supreme Court Decision federal government has the power to regulate steamboats This was another case where Federal National Powers were expanded 14th Amendment Reconstruction amendment to the constitution correcting the 35 compromise Equal protection amendment All persons born or naturalized in the united states and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United states The 14th Amendment weakened states telling who is citizens and who is not citizens Stock Market crash changes the balance of power between federal and state governments How Grantsinaid COERCIVE FEDERALISM Transition from Offering federal grants in aid to threatening to withhold EXAMPLES Government withheld grants for US highways because they wanted a national speed limit They also set a national drinking age so they withheld money from bigger projects to help a majority of people because of a certain minority Unfunded Mandates No child left behind a policy where states are required to have a certain number of students graduate from their schools if the requirement is not met the federal government has the right to withhold money and shut down that school NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND Received incredible bipartisan support in congress in 2001 Some Provisions of the Act States must make Adequate yearly progress AYP Failure to meet AYP goals result in incremental punitive action Criticism Unrealistic goals Consequences Race to the bottom Narrow Curriculum NEW FEDERALISM THE RISE OF STATES RIGHTS Since 1970s a movement has spurred in retaliation of coercive federalism What is new federalism Advocates more restrictions on congressional power Argues for heavier protection of States Rights Landmark court case advocating New Federalism United States v Lopez 1995 A kid comes to school one day carrying a firearm because he claims he was going got sell it to his fried for 4 Once confronted by the authorities he was discharged and excused from school and put up for ruling He miraculously gets off with a technicality The court decided that this was a matter of interstate commerce States may regulate gun laws pertaining to educational systems Right to Marry Defense of Marriage Act States may choose wether or not to allow same sex marriage Abortion Rights Planned Parenthood V Casey Children under 18 seeking abortion require parental consent STRENGTHS OF FEDERALISM provides national unity Prevents tyranny through decentralization of power permits laws to match the political culture promotes the division of labor within government allows creative policy information provides many opportunities for political participation balances wide array of interest and represents diversity WEAKNESSES OF FEDERALISM Hinders universalistic policy making Limits power and frustrates efficiency Leads to policy inconsistencies between oca state and national governments has potential to duplicate government programs exacerbates inequities when states can t meet national provisions Citizens are overwhelmed by the frequency of elections WHAT DOES THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT REALLY MEAN Will go over next week link will be posted to D2L
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