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Week 2 Notes

by: Samantha Silseth

Week 2 Notes HIST 1020 -012

Samantha Silseth
GPA 3.5
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World History II
Donna Bohanan

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About this Document

These notes cover the 2nd week of World History II
World History II
Donna Bohanan
Class Notes




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Silseth on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 01/25/16
Origins of the French Revolution Society under the ancient regime Financial Crisis the debt Assembly of Notables resistance of the parliament Absolutism France Louis XVI A monarchy where the ruler has unlimited power Rights and liberties don39t exist Three Estates Social Groups not necessarily based on income Clergy Since France was Catholic this group was Catholic Priests They got special treatment They had their very own legal system in the church amp were not taxed Nobility These ranged from the aristocrats to the country squires They were privileged as well because they were known as the ghters the ones who fought for society They were exempted from all taxes In reality not many of them were actual warriors but rather lawyers or people in government The Third Estate 95 of the French Population Had to pay taxes no special treatment 0 The Bourgeoisie middle class the businessmen who bought into the ideas of the enlightenment Ranged from entrepreneurs to shop owners Sanculottes urban working class they worked for the Bourgeoisie Peasants rural agricultural workers 85 of French population 50 or more of their income went to paying taxes Louis XVI France has a lot of debt under his rule because of involvement in numerous wars 18th century Calonne The Finance Minister dealing with debt he knew it was a bad idea to raise taxes because the peasants would revolt He wanted to impose a land tax that would effect nobles amp the church The EstatesGeneral Basically the French version of a Parliament Their job is to approve taxes Louis XVI doesn39t want to call them because they haven t meet in over 100 years and would probably take advantage of the king 1787 The Assembly of the Notables The People were hand picked by the king mostly from the nobility who hoped they would do him a favor and simply pass his new laws When they didn t agree to pass his laws he dismissed the Assembly Resistance of the Parlement Louis wants them to approve his new tax laws when they say no he threatens them amp have them removed The remaining judges then go on strike amp government slowly shuts down Note judges are usually sons of nobles Their request is no taxation without representation Marie Antoinette She is a trend setter and doesn t care about the lower classes She was despised The EstatesGeneral 1789 Finally has to meet for the rst time in 175 years Each social group is represented by 5 delegates in the EstatesGeneral and they vote in 3 separate chambers Each social group comes to a consensus and that is their 1 vote This means that 95 of the population is represented by 1 vote Since the clergy amp nobility usually agree on votes the tax laws would not be approved Peasants were fully aware of what was happening and wanted everyone to speak in one room as well as each delegate to have their own vote 3rOI estate refers to themselves as national assembly Louis is scared so he locks them out They go meet at the next open location which is an indoor tennis court June 20th 1789 Tennis Court Oath quotWe ll meet wherever we have to until we have a written constitution for Francequot is basically what that said Revolutionary momentum is headed toward the 3rOI estate as they make a new constitution for France Bastille July 14 Everyone Versailles doing their part Louis was dealing with the counter revolutionists Courtiers who advised him to move troops into the area so he does This makes the revolution more radical because people are afraid they are going to be attacked so in turn they start preparing themselves in order to protect themselves Bastille was a symbol of monarchyabsolutism so the people of Paris capture the man in charge of it and decapitate him and parade around town with his head on a pike July 14th is now French independence day The Great Fear Helps drive the revolution to the left Rumors spread that nobles hired thugs to assault them peasants Peasants start wrecking manor houses amp want to destroy nancial records The Work of the National Assembly Decrees of Aug 4 national assembly plans to have 1 nobleman renounce the debts amp future payments of the peasants to emancipate the peasants Declaration of the right of man September 1789 Drafted by the Marquis de Lafayette in uenced by American ideas Excludes women but declares all men free amp equal in the mean time while the constitution is being written Constitutional Monarchy o 1791 the 1st constitution of many 0 saved the monarchy constitutional monarchy 0 major limits on the authority of the king people get rights and division of power French Revolution ll Legislative assembly representative composition policies war they39re prorevolution amp more radical than the national assembly Conservatives also like the new constitution The radicals want a new constitution a republic and no king Girondists Prorepublic middle class bourgeoisie minimalist government favor laissezfaire economics the left Jacobins the true radicals Want a government that meets working class sanculottes needs like minimum wage laws George Danton amp Maximilien Robespierre They don t want the revolution to stop at France George Danton an attorney and Jacobin who could draw a crowd amp inspire them to act He was highly educated amp dressed colorfully Maximilien Robespierre Jacobin perfectly dressed control freak aloof amp not as warm Drives the republic phase of the revolution Legislative assembly policies grow more radical as war occurs amp they want to go to war Other countries are nervous that revolutionary ideas will spread amp their governments are in trouble Why everyone wants to go to war with Austria amp Prussia Right wanted to solidify government by winning a war Left wants war bc they were weak amp could create new government Antirevolutionists want war bc they were weak and they could change back to a monarchy NannalconvenUon France becomes a republic no king Super radical Split bt Girondists amp Jacobins they dominate the convenUon Execute Louis XVI amp Marie with the guillotine France institutes 1st modern draft in the west married men make guns operate transport women work in hospitals amp make uniforms children help rip cloth for bandages old men sent out on the front to inspire others quotquotquotquot This creates a patriotic army drives Austrians amp Prussians out of France The Reign of Terror Committee of Public Safety 0 Made of 12 men 0 Carried out the Reign of Terror it s a purge o Executed thousands wo trials for having counter revolutionary beliefs 0 A time of extraordinary censorship in theatre newspaper amp literature Cultural revolution 0 Changed the calendar years amp name of months 0 Style women dressed like ancient Rome 0 Household furnishings Roman names given to children Reign of Terror goes too far when the execute Danton Robespierre wants a 2nOI purge people think its out of control Thermadorian reaction gt Directory The Directory 1795 Longest government yet lasted 4 years More moderate Laissezfaire economics but the government would still help regulate the economy when it was turning bad Made of a 5 man committee directors amp a legislative body to try and divide power Major policy of this government is war France went from losing to Austria amp Prussia to beating them under the directory Their next focus was t quotexport the ideas of the revolution by war revolutionary ideas II Rise of Napoleon Early life amp education 0 He is Italian born in Corsica shortly after it was a French possession 0 He went to military school in France at age 9 and became a sublieutenant and easily became a general because of two reasons 1 there was a major opportunity because they were at war 2 sons of generals had ed France in fear of going to war which created more open spots in the army 0 He spent his free time reading Military success 0 Received command of the French army in Italy 1796 when he was 20 0 His Mass amp mobility idea move a lot of troops very quickly by carrying very little and living off oftheland 0 He understood geography amp how to use terrain to his advantage Ex the battle of the Nile which he lost he brought cartographers amp engineers to map out the terrain amp this is when the Rosetta stone was discovered o Coup d tat rapid overthrow of government quotsudden blow to the statequot is its translation Establish Consulate Government legislative body amp committee 3 men known as the consuls Napoleon is the primary consul 1802 napoleon gets voted consul for life aka monarch with a constitutional title 1804 he becomes emperor by vote 0 makes people wonder if he is still prorevolution Napoleons Empire French Empire was larger than Charlemagne s French Empire Annexed into France parts of Italy Allied states napoleon defeated amp they re forced to follow him Dependent states barely ruled by France Ex Netherlands quot He would get rid of monarchies and turn them into republics then change them back into monarchies and put his siblings in power Reforms constitutional changes All men are created equal Metric system implementation went from having no standardized units to using standardized units greatest cultural accomplishment Napoleonic code laws Louisiana s laws are similar to them Cultural amp political achievement standardized laws in France Napoleons downfall Couldn39t defeat Britain at Trafalgar Tried to defeat by navy 1805 Battle of Trafalgar off the coast of Spain loses to Admiral Nelson for the 2nOI time Continental System Attempt to destroy Britain economically after failed attempts to defeat them militarily Britain is the worlds 1st industrial economy Napoleon puts a boycott on it The continental system was not popular because people liked the cheap British goods and it nancially hurt the continent to boycott them Continental system created in ation which causes middle class nationalism strong pride in one s nationalitycountry aka patriotism Disliked by Germans and ltalians Russia 1812 Napoleon assembles 650000man army 0 Largest in western history They march into Russia with little resources 0 Russians retreat deeper into Russia pursuing a scorched earth policy Scorched Earth burned the ground so that the French had no resources to live off of 0 Winter starts in September amp French aren t prepared 0 Lost 500000 men during the invasion Retreat after reaching scorched Moscow Germany starts raising troops against the French Britain is waiting for napoleon in France amp defeat him They drop napoleon off at the small island of Elba and allow him to be in power there Waterloo 1815 Napoleon assembles a 1500man army amp lands on the southern coast of France They march for 100 days and his old veterans come and join his army in France They meet the British at waterloo where napoleon is defeated by the Duke of Wellington They send napoleon to St Helena as a prisoner Congress of Vienna 1815 Met at Vienna to decide what they would do with their government and how to divide the countries boundanes Conservative decisions made here to try and turn the clock back They restored dynasty s amp did not allow Germany or Italy to be a state their nationalism was ignored 0 This sets the stage for 19th century revolutions o elimination of social privilege nobility is still in play 10 11


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