Kinesiology Week 1 Notes
Kinesiology Week 1 Notes MOV 300
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This 68 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria D'Angelo on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MOV 300 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Krisanne Chapin in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology in Cinema And Media Studies at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Learn the Language Welcome to Kinesiologyland There is a fair amount of basic terminology we need to just KNOW This enables us to talk to each other about the body and how we move no matter the body position Directional terminology Movement planes and axes Joint movements Reference Positions Anatomical position most widely used amp accurate for all aspects of the body standing in an upright posture facing straight ahead feet parallel and close amp palms facing forward Fundamental position essentially same as anatomical position except arms are at the sides amp palms facing the body Distal Distal Proximal Proximal Anatomical Direc onal Terminology Anterior ventral In front or the front part Posterior dorsal In back behind or in the rear Lateral Away from midline on the outside Medial Closer to midline Can be combined to improve directional detail Anterolateral posteromedial Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Anterior Anteromedia T39b39ol lUberos39ly Anteroateral Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus Km h Lateral meniscus t l gt t x ll39 23 E Medial Medial i K 1 V Lateral tibial i i plateau l quot Lateral tibial plateau Vi 39 1 it quot w Posteromeclia Posterolatera Posterior cruciate ligament Posterior Right knee superior view with femur removed Anthony CP Kolthoff NJ Textbook ofanatomy and physiology ed 9 St Louis 1975 Mosby Copyright McGraw Hill Education Permission required for reproduction or display Superior Superoatera Superomedia Lateral epicondyle l Medial epicondyle i Lateral 1 7 Medial I Patella Lateral femoral condyle U Medial femoral condyle Lateral tibial condyle Medic tibial condyle Fibular head Tibial tuberosity Tibia Inferolatera Inferomedia Inferior Right knee anterior view Linda Kimbrough Fibula Anatomical Direc onal Terminology Inferior Below in relation to another structure Superior Above in relation to another structure Proximal Closer to the trunk closer to the point of origin Distal Away from the trunk away from the point of origin Proximal and Distal does not change no matter the position you are in Anatomical Direc onal Terminology Deep Beneath or below the surface Super cial Near the surface Contralateral Relating to the opposite side of the body psHateral Relating to the same side of the body Prone Face down position lying on stomach Supine Face upvposition lying on the back Anatomical Direc onal Terminology Dorsal relating to the back being or located near on or toward the back posterior part or upper surface of also relating to the top of the foot Ventral relating to the belly or abdomen on or toward the front anterior part Body Regions Axial CephahcHead Cervical Neck Trunk Appendicular Upperlimbs Lowerlimbs Body Regions Axial CephahcHead Cranial skull Frontal occipital Facial orbital otic nasal buccal cheek oral mental chin Cervical Neck Nuchal posterior Throat Body Regions Axial Trunk Thoracic Thorax Clavicular pectoral sternal costal mammary Dorsal Back Scapula vertebral lumbar Abdominal Abdomen Celiac umbilical Pelvic Pelvis Anterior Inguinal pubic coxal Sacral gluteal perineal Body Regions Appendicular Upper limbs Shoulder acromial omus deltoid axillary Arm amp Forearm Brachial upper arm olecranon cubital elbow antecubital ante brachial forearm carpal Manual palmar dorsal digital Body Regions Appendicular Lower limbs Thigh amp Leg Femoral patella popliteal posterior knee Sural calf crural leg Pedal Talus calcaneal dorsum Tarsal plantar digital Planes of lVIo u39on Imaginary twodimensional surface through which a limb or body segment is moved Motion through a plane revolves around an axis The axis of motion is perpendicular to the plane of motion Vertical oxus longitudinal long Sagittal plane amoropostcno r AP Frontal plane 39 Anteroposterior lateral coroml axis sagittol AP lateral axis Transverse plane horizomoll frontaL coronal Medial aspect Lateral aspect Inferior Sagittal Plane AP Plane Bisects the body into Right and Left halves Frontal coronal lateral or mediolateral axis Runs medial lateral Commonly includes exion extension movements 0 Examples Walking Lifting arm Flexion extension Supcruor Sogi al plane anecroposicrior AP l39 Anteropr am 09 lateral axis llrontal coronal Medial aspect Lateral aspect Inferior Frontal Plane Also coronal plane Anteropostenor Divides the body into Front quot39 939quot quot Aquot anterioramp back posterior halves a quot Sagittal or anteroposterior axis 39 Runs anterior posterior a quotr Commonly includes abduction adduction movements Examples l Jumping jack Frontal plane lateral coronal Q k Transverse Plane Vertical oxus longitudinal long Also Axial or Horizontal Plane lplone l coromll Divides body into top superior amp bottom inferorm halves Transverse plone Vertical long or longitudinal axis honzomoll Runs superior inferior Commonly includes internal rotation external rotation movements K 0 Examples Diagonal Plane Oblique axis Runs at a right angle to the diagonal plane Copyright McGrawHW Ed ucation Permission required for reproduction or display Diagonal 39 plane of motion AxlS all RT Floyd Joint Movements Flexion Mvmt results in decreasing angle between two bones usually sagittal plane Extension Mvmt results in increasing angle between two bones Dorsi exion Mvmt results in dorsum of foot toward anterior shin Pulling toes up Extension mvmt of wrist moving dorsal side of hand toward posterior forearm PlantarPalmar exion Ankle mvmt taking foot away from the body Pointing toes Wrist exion mvmt bringing palm toward anterior forearm Joint Movements Abduction ABduction Lateral movement AWAY from midline Adduction ADduction Movement medially TOWARD midline Diagonal AB or ADduction Movement away AB or toward AD midline on a diagonal plane Glenohumeral shoulder Joint and Coxafemoral hip Joint Horizontal ABduction mvmt of the humerus or femur in a horizontal plane AWAY from midline Horizontal Adduction mvmt of the femur or humerus TOWARD midline in horizontal plane Joint lovements Transverse Plane Internal Rotation Mvmt around the long axis of a bone toward the midline of the body Medial rotation inward rotation External Rotation Mvmt around the long axis of a bone away from midline Lateral rotation outward rotation Circumduction Circular mvmt of a limb combining exext and abadduction making a cone shape Joint Movements Frontal Plane Eversion Turning sole of the foot laterally in frontal plane Inversion Turning sole of foot medially in frontal plane Pronation Internally rotating radius resulting in palm down At the foot pronation is a combination of dorsiflexion subtalar eversion and forefoot ABduction Supination External rotating radius resulting in palm facing up At the foot combination of plantar exion subtalar inversion and forefoot adduc on Joint Movements Scapular Motion Depression inferior mvmt of the shoulder girdle frontal plane Elevation Superior movement of the shoulder girdle frontal plane Protraction forward movement of the shoulder girdle in horizontal plane Abduction of scapula Retraction backward movement of the shoulder girdle Adduction of the scapula Upward rotation inferior edge of scapula moving up and laterally Downward rotation inferior edge of scapula moving down and medially usually returning from upward rotation Joint Movements Spine Movements Lateral Flexion side bending movement of head andor trunk laterally away from midline in frontal plane Reduction return to anatomical position from laterally exed position Wrist Movements Radial Deviation radial exion abduction mvmt of the wrist in the frontal plane thumb toward lateral forearm Ulnar Deviationulnar exion adduction mvmt at the wrist in the frontal plane ngers toward medial forearm Thumb Movements Opposition of the thumb diagonal mvmt of thumb across palmar surface to make contact with ngers Reposition of the thumb diagonal mvmt of thumb to anatomical position Review Shoulder flex extension Shoulder horizontal abduction Elbow supinationpro Wrist radialulnar deviation Trunk rotation Hip abduction adduction Knee exionextension Ankle dorsi exionplantar exion sagittal transverse transverse frontal transverse frontal sagittal sagittal Laws of IVIoU39on NEWTON39S LAWS OF MOTION Sir Isaac Newton Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica 1686 Laws of moh on Law of inertia or The First Law A body in motion tends to remain in motion at the same speed in a straight line unless acted upon by a force A body at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by a force Inertia is the resistance of an object to motion it is directly proportional to its mass The more massive an object is the more it tends to maintain its current state of motion Iner a De nition resistance to action or change In human movement inertia refers to resistance to acceleration or deceleration Tendency for the current state of motion to be maintained regardless of whether the body segment is moving at a particular velocity or is motionless The reluctance to change status only force can change status muscles produce force to start stop accelerate decelerate amp change the direction of motion Iner a The greater an object s mass the greater its inertia the greater the mass the more force needed to overcome an object s inertia Examples Sprinter in starting blocks must apply considerable force to overcome his resting inertia Runner on an indoor track must apply considerable force to overcome moving inertia amp stop before hitting the wall Thrown or struck balls require force to stop them Iner a Because muscle force is required to change inertia in human motion it takes energy Any activity carried out at a steady pace in a consistent direction will conserve energy Any irregularly paced or directed activity will be very costly to energy reserves Ex dancing amp basketball are generally much more fatiguing than walking or skating Laws of IVIo u39on Law of acceleration or The Second Law A change in the acceleration of a body occurs in the same direction as the force that caused it The change in acceleration is directly proportional to the force causing it and inversely proportional to the mass of the body Acceleration rate of change in velocity msZ Mass amount of matter in a body kg The more force The more acceleration me Fma Laws of Motion Law of reaction or The Third Law For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Ground Reaction Forces Action feet push down Reaction ground pushes up on feet Track has more vs Sand has less reaction forces The Third Law m Balance and Equilibrium Equilibrium State of zero acceleration There is no change in the speed or direction of the body Balance Ability to control equilibrium Stability The resistance to a change in the body s acceleration equilibrium COM vs COG Center of Mass COM The point at which all of the body s MASS is equally balanced and distributed NOT always a point within the bodyquot Center of Gravity COG The point at which all of the body s WEIGHT is equally balanced and distributed Vertical projection of COG onto the floor is an important factor in stability Factors in Equilibrium Stability and Balance A person has balance when the center of gravity projection falls within the base of support A person has balance in the direct proportion to the size of the base The larger the base of support the more balance A person has balance depending on the weight mass The greater the weight the more balance A person has balance depending on the weight of the center of gravity The lower the center of gravity the more balance Factors in Equilibrium Stability and Balance A person has balance depending on where the center of gravity is in relation to the base of support Balance is less if the center of gravity is near the edge of the base When anticipating an oncoming force stability may be improved by placing the center of gravity nearer the side of the base of support expected to receive the force OR By enlarging the size of the base of support in the direction of the anticipated force Balance equilibrium and stability are essential in all movements and are all affected by the constant force of gravity as well as by the inertia of the body Unit 1 Review Directional Terminology body regions Planes and Axes of Motion Joint lVIovement Terminology Biomechanics Kinematics Types of motion Linear Angular General Displacement vs distance Kinetics Levers Laws of Motion Inertia Balance COM Intro to Biomechanics Biomechanics The study of the mechanics as it relates to the functional and anatomical analysis of biological systems eg humans Necessary to study the body s mechanical characteristics amp principles to understand its movements De nitions kinematics description of motion and includes consideration of time displacement velocity acceleration and space factors of a system s motion kinetics study of forces associated with the motion of a body Forces are vector quantities magnitude size direction line of action point of application Metric units Newtons N 1 N 1 kg 1 msz English units Pound lb 1b 1 slug 1 ftsz Kinematics Angular displacement change in location of a rotating body Joint angles change during movement Linear displacement distance that a system moves In a straight line 5 eed how fast an object is moving or distance t at an ObJECt moves In a specr c amount of tIme Velocity includes the direction amp describes the rate of displacement Kinematics Displacement actual distance that the object has been displaced from its original point of reference shortest path distance from A to B Distance sum length of measurement traveled total path Displacement X5 X1 Distance Z Xj Xi 51 X1ry1 Heelstrike 424 Toeoff Forms of Motion Linear Motion Uniform motion of the system of interest aka translation All system parts moving in the same direction at the same speed Rectilinear motion along a straight line Curvilinear motion along a curved line Example in human movement Jumpmg Curvilinear motion Forms of Motion Angular Motion Rotation around a central imaginary line known as the axis of Rm rotation Example in human movement Figure skating Forms of Motion Angular motions can combine to create linear motions Of the body such as in walking Of an object such as a ball General lVIotion When linear motion translation and angular motion are combined the resulting movement is general movement Lever Arm Length Long levers produce more linear force and thus better performance in some sports Z1 is moving faster than S1 because it s moving a greater distance in the same amount of time 21 end of pitchers lever 51 end of catchers lever Distance runner longer lever than sprinter Lever Arms The Longer the lever the more effective it is in imparting velocity Pitcher puts greatest speed on the ball with a long lever Tennis player can achieve faster ball speed serving wa straight arm than a bent elbow longer lever Tennis vs racquetball But for quickness of movement a shorter lever arm is advantageous Catcher throwing to 2nOI Ball won t be moving as fast but motion will be complete in less time Al Kinetics Force applied Movement Forces on the body make us move muscles and gravity Musculoskeletal system may be thought of as a series of snmple machInes machines used to increase mechanical advantage Mechanical advantage Loadeffort or load divided by effort Ideally using a relatively small force or effort to move a much greater resrstance OR Used to move one point of an object a relatively small distance yet resulting in a relatively large amount of movement of another pornt of the same ObJECt Kinetics Force applied Movement Machines function in four ways Balance multiple forces enhance force in an attempt to reduce total force needed to overcome a resistance Enhance ROM amp Speed of movement so that resistance may be moved further or faster than applied force alter resulting direction of the applied force Kinetics Machines IVIusculoskeletel system arrangement provides for 3 types of machines for producing movement Levers most common Wheels axles Pulleys Levers De nition A rigid bar that turns about an axis of rotation or a fulcrum The leverbar rotates about the axis as a result of force being applied to it to cause its movement against a resistance or weight In the body the bones represent the bars the joints are the axes and the muscles contract to apply the force to move the weight First Class Levers Axis in the middle is located between the force and the resistance dea to produce balanced movements Can also produce speed and range of motion and force depending on location of axis Force A Resistance First Class Levers A If the force arm and resistance arm are equal in Force arm L Resistance arm I I Force arm 385532 length a fqrce equal to the I I quot tr a reSIstance IS requIred to R R balance it lt A t A 39239 B As the force arm becomes Iromeom Resrsmnceorm l longer a decreasing amount quot T of force is required to move a F A relatively larger resistance C As the force arm becomes shorter an increasing amount of force is required to more a relatively smaller resistance IA I Second Class Levers The resistance R in the middle is between the axis A and the force Fonger Least found in the body Designed to produce force movements Large resistance can be moved by a relatively small force A Force Resistance f Third Class Levers The Force in middle is placed between the axis A and the Resistance Most levers in the body are of this type Designed to produce speed and Range of Motion ROM movements Require a great deal of force to move even a small resistance Force A Resistance A Balance Levers Mechanical Advantage MA ResistanceLoad Force Effort MA 1 perfectly balanced only in 1St class lever Force Resistance when FA RA Resistance Force arm 10 arm 10 k gtlt a E Fl A 39 llt Force arm 20 gt I Resistance Power Levers TFT R F10R40MA4 A A 394 Force arm 20 g gt 1 I Iftesistancearm19 Less force needed to 2nd lt 1F R I move greater F101R201 MA2 A resistance C 2nd Class Levers 1lt F0erf 20 15 gt1 Least prevalent in the FT gtI body F 10 R 1333 MA 133 A lst Class Lever B Resistance I4 Force arm 15 gtltarm 5gt FA always longer 39 39 R 39 than RA 1st L A F 1333 340 MA3 Resistance arm 20 SPEEd ROM Levers l 39 F2o R10 MAO5 A V V B MA Resistance Force lt Resisiamearm o mg If MA lt 1 3mquot More force needed to 39E39 F 40 R 10 MA 025 move Smaller resistance 3rd Class Levers C 394 Resistance arm 20 I Most prevalent In the r a 394 Force arm 15 body T 7 l l F E F1333R10MA075 A C F FA lt RA force arm always shorter I writes I Resistancearm15 than resistance arm lst quot T 7 LA F 40 R 133A3AM1A933 Lever Factors Force exerted FARTHER than resistance from axis mechanical advantage Lever systems operating at mechanical advantage slower more stable and used when strength is priority power lever Force exerted NEARER than resistance to axis mechanical disadvantage Lever systems operating at mechanical disadvantage force is lost but speed and ROM is gained can be bene cial Variations in tendon insertions A person whose tendons are inserted on the bone farther from the joint center should be able to lift heavier weights increase in FA Tradeoff involved with tendon insertion mechanical advantage gained is accompanied by a loss of maximum speed To produce a given joint rotational velocity a muscle inserted farther from the joint center must contract at a higher speed at which it is less capable of generating force Anatomical levers Torque movement of force Turning effect of an eccentric force Eccentric force Don t confuse with eccentric contraction A force that is applied in a direction not in line with the center of rotation of an object with a xed axis For rotation to occur an eccentric force must be apphed Factors Anatomical levers Resistance arm RA distance between the axis and point of resistance Force Torque arm FA distance between the axis and point of force application greater the distance greater the torque FA RA gt Force 5 l Resistance Factors Anatomical levers Inverse relationship between the force and force arm and resistance and resistance arm The longer the force arm the less force required to move the lever Getting your leverage door guessing where hinges are The shorter the resistance arm the greater the resistance can be moved 39FXFARXRA Relationship btwn Forces and Force Arms EXAMPLE biceps brachii lifting 45 N 39FXFARXRA force x force arm resistance x resistance arm F x 01 meters 45 Newtons x 025 meters F 4502501 F 1139250391 RA 025 meters F 112 5 Newtons I01 ml 4 g V Change Insertion Move insertion distally by 005 meters 5 cm Changes FA increasing it from 010 to 015 m F x 015 meters 45 Newtons x 025 meters F 45o25o15 F 1125 015 F 75Newtons Decrease in force required by changing insertion point RA 025 meters 4 A A 005 meter increase in insertion I 015 m I considerably difference the force Bi necessary to move the lever Change Resistance Arm Decrease resistance arm by 005 meters F x 01meters 45 Newtons x 020 meters F 4520 01 F 9O1 F 90 Newtons RA 020 meters A 005 meter reduction V in resistance arm can O I m reduce the force H DE 1 necessary to move the lever Change Resistance Decrease resistance by 1 Newton FxO1m44NxO25m F 4425 1 F 11 01 0 F 110 Newton u RA 025 meters L 5 3 Reducing resistance reduces the amount of force needed to move the lever
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