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Week 2 Class Notes

by: Katerina Oskolkoff

Week 2 Class Notes MIC205A

Katerina Oskolkoff
GPA 3.76
General Microbiology

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About this Document

Lecture based notes including clicker questions posed (what the quizzes will be based on)
General Microbiology
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katerina Oskolkoff on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MIC205A at University of Arizona taught by Wilbur in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at University of Arizona.

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Date Created: 01/25/16
Week 2 january 19 2016 CELLS Clicker questions 1 Which of the list is a virus Hantavirus 2 MRSA is the acronym associated with one of the most common nosocomial infections What species of bacteria causes MRSA infections Staphylococcus aureus 3 Tomorrow you wake up with a horrible sore throat Your roommate looks into your throat and sees the image below picture is red swollen throat Which of the following microbes do you think is the most likely cause of your infection Streptococcus pyogenes 4 Do all bacteria cause disease No 5 Which statement about phospholipids bilayers is not true a All cellular membranes are composed of phospholipid bilayers b Phospholipids interact with each other exclusively through charged interactions c Hydrophobic compounds can interact with phospholipids d All of the above are true Things to know about the list disease presentation what are they what category do they t into virusbacteriagram pos or negaUve Bug of the Day StaphStrep Toxic Shock Syndrome Shock generalizedbody wide in ammation due to uid leaking out of all blood vessels can cause death 0 brain is not receiving glucose so body tries to get brain below brain by shutting down ability to stand l body shuts of function of other parts of body to save brain organ failure 0 fever low blood pressure diffuse rash T55 is caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes These bacteria produce a toxin called TSS toxin1 which is a superantigen p439 that cross links host MHC II to T cells in the absence of antigen causes reactivation of entire memory system all T cells which leads to shock STSS and Rely Tampons O O O In 19705 Rely Tampon was created and intended to be inserted at the start of menses and removed at the end of menses 57 days 1980 CDC noted a spike in T55 in menstruating women after removal of produce spike went down Some of the tampons were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus p yogenes in manufacturing essentially creating a device to transfer these bacteria to women Current rate is 510100000 Most TSS cases ass with an inserted device ie catheter 0 Robert Koch O 0 German microbiologist credited with isolating culturing and identifying Bacillus anthracis M ycobacterium tuberculosis a nd librio cholera Koch s postulate scienti c method of proving that a speci c microbe is causing disease it must be Found in all cases Prepared and maintained in pure culture Capable of producing the original infection even after several generations in culture Retrievable from an inoculated animal and able to be recultured 0 Ethics issue when it is not ethical to infect people with microbe in order to see if they contract disease ie HIV 0 Alexander Flemming antibiotics o A microbiologist who was searching for compounds that killed bacteria but not humans at the time re was the best known method for killing bacteria 0 He inoculated plate with Staph aureus and sees a fungal infection of Penicilium on the same plate and notices that the bacterial colonies are smallest near the fungal colony something in the fungus is killing the bacteria 0 Was able to isolate Penicillin to be used to kill bacteria but not humans 0 Jenner Vaccines 0 English doctor 0 Was able to show that people infected with cowpox Vaccinia did not get smallpox why 0 He noticed that milkmaids did not have smallpox scars but had cowpox scars l He inoculates his children with cow pox and then exposed them to smallpox and they did not get infected o Jenner came up with the idea of vaccination pre inform immune system so it protects us from infectious agent before we encounter it 0 Good vs Bad Microbes o Is the bacteria bad or misunderstood o Escherichia coli for the most part good in gut essential for human life but also major player in fecal contamination o Salmonella bacteria that evolved in dinosaurs and is now present in reptiles and birds Not harmful to the reptile or bird but harmful for a human who consumes fecal matter from these organisms o Staphylococcus epidermitis on the skin of every human but if It gets into blood stream can grow on heart valves and causes damage D can die from lack of oxygen Contamination often occurs during surgical procedure o Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes STD gonorrhoeae number one cause of sterility does not cause disease in 99100 people 0 Burkhoderia lives in the soil and have evolved mechanisms to resist almost all antibiotics and amoeba untreatable pneumonia l death 0 Do bacteria want to kill us NO most disease is associated with bacteria that is not inherently bad but is in the wrong place Evolution does not drive toward killing man There is no evolutionary pressure toward causing disease CELLS Hooke s observation of Cork 0 Made rst observation of a cell and determined cell was smallest unit of life 0 Gave cells their names because they resembled sleeping quarters of monks that were called cells 0 Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes o Eukaryotes have nucleus and internal membranes 0 Prokaryotes have single membrane and everything that happens inside happens within that single membrane Smaller and simpler than eukaryotes Nucleoid instead of nucleus Pro before karyon little nut Two groups Eubacteria more common and Archaea live in extreme environments 0 Bacterial Cell Morphology 0 Size Bacterial cells range in size from 02 micro meters 20 micro metersin width and 28 micrometers in length 0 Shape CoccussphencaD bacillus rod Curved o Vibrio single curve o Spirillum 2 curves 0 Spirochete numerous curves 0 Arrangement consequence of cell division Clusters staphylococci divide randomly Chains happens when the cells divide in the same plane every time streptococci packets every division is perpendicular to the last Structure of bacterial cell membrane 0 Membrane made of phospholipid bilayer crossed with proteins phosphoproteins 0 Function of membrane Keep order of inside of the cell separate and protected from outside environment Doesn t allow the chaos entropy of external enter cell creates a zone where order can persist Phospholipids have polar head hydrophillic and two nonpolar tails hydrophobic connected by a glycerol Unsaturated fats have double bonds Can be interacted with through either the polar head or the nonpolar tail Liposome nature arrangement of high concentration of phospholipids ball of phospholipids that has water outside and inside it Bacterial cell walls Eubacteria NOT archaea have peptidoglycan cell wall Functions to protect the bacterium from osmotic shock and helps bacterium maintain hsshape Two large groups of Eubacteria gram negative and grampositive Grampositive have thick peptidoglycan layer Gram negative two membranes with periplasm in between which contains thin peptidoglycan buried under a membrane LPS on surface which can be recognized by body Endotoxin can kill if injected into body Gram stain divides human pathogens into two groups Positive turns purple and negative turns pink purple stain is washed out january 1 2016 Bug of the Day Cyanobacterium o Photosynthesis bluegreen algae Production of 02 0 Turned oceans green blue 0 Caused precipitation of aqueous iron 0 Killed most life on earth great oxygenation event 23 bil years ago Colonies of cyanobacteria evolved to stay in the photosynthetic zone and were able to photosynthesize better they survived and killed almost everything via oxidation Karijini National Park Western Australia rock contains strata of Iron because oxygenation multiple strata indicate that there were number catastrophes in which the ocean was saturated with oxygen causing precipitation of iron forming a new strata This cycle continued for 05 billion years Period in history with highest oxygen concentration was Jurassic period l animals and plants grew much larger 0 Clicker question Why did so many species of bacteria go extinct as a result of the metabolism of Cyanobacteria Photosynthesis produces Oxygen gas 02 0 Cell Membranes Cont o phospholipid membranes limit passage of largecharged molecules sugars irons amino acids ATP macromolecules o diffusion passage through a membrane from low to high concentration 0 Osmosis diffusion of water molecules across selectively permeable membrane from an area in which water mol are highly concentrated to an area of low concentration Three kinds 1 lsotonic same concentration inside and outside cell 2 Hypotonic low concentration of solute outside cell compared to inside water moves into cell 3 Hypertonic high concentration of solute outside of cell water moves out of cell Water ows across a membrane toward the hypertonic solution we refer to the solution being hypohypertonic to the other solution 0 Clicker question Given the concentration of students inside Harvill 150 in comparison to concentration of students outside how to you predict diffusion will in uence undergraduate movements Over time students Will migrate out of the lecture hall 0 Transport Proteins different from a pore which allows free passage based on side transport protein recognizes speci c molecules based on shape or charge and binding of that molecule changes the shape of the transport protein allowing the molecule to be released on the other side of the membrane Three con rmations open out closed open in Con rmation is determined by binding of substrate 0 Types of transport 1 Facilitated movement down concentration gradient with a transport potein 2 Active transport takes substrate from low high concentration using ATP or by using a cotransport syn or anti doesn t need a concentration gradient 3 Group translocation modify substrate when it comes in to create a false gradient ie phosphate group This occurs with glucose transport when glucose comes in it gets phosphorylated after entering in so it can no longer leave 0 Passive Transport don t use energy 0 Proton motive force created through H being pumped in or out of cell example against pH gradient this proton motive force uses gradient to do work 0 Secretion of enzymes allows processing of macromolecules outside of cells bacteria cannot take in macromolecules n secrete an protein that is made in the cytosol a protein pumped out of cell a becomes enzyme outside of cell a enzyme breaks down macromolecule n subunits from macromolecules can then be transported into the cell 0 Some proteins span the cell membrane and connect inside to outside 0 Pores and transport systems Active and passive transport 0 Secretion systems Pili motility attachment conjugation Flagella motility Other protein secretion systems there are 6 Toxin secretion 0 Type III secretion needle complex 0 Clicker question What type of transport best describes process of getting 0 class in the morning Active transport 0 Bacterial Secretion o The instructions DNA are inside the cell but the work is done outside the cell 0 Glycocalyx Sticlq stuff extracellular polysaccharide 0 General term for gelatinous substance polymers composed of polysaccharides polypeptides or both o Surrounds bacterial cells 0 0 Made inside the cell and secreted Can exist in 2 basic forms depending on species of bacteria 1 Slime layer less organized 2 Capsule more organized Functions to O O O O 0 Allow bacteria to attach to surfaces aids in colonization Protects bacteria against desiccation and dehydration Nutrient trap Virulence factor protects from phagocytosis by immune cells A capsule is a wellorganized and rmly attached glycocalyx o Slayer group of proteins that when secreted selfassemble on the surface in high concentrations to form a sheet which makes it dif cult for human cells to recognize the presence of the bacteria because the peptidoglycan is covered and unrecognizable o Endospores most in Gram form endospores in response to stress 0 O O Spores are resistant to heat radiation toxins antibiotics desiccation Mother cell dies no net gain of cell number Seen as light nonstaining area within cells in a Gram stain ln stress one cell Mother cell swallows another cell daughter cell l daughter cell is the spore and is able to survive almost any conditions mother cell is degraded and endospore released ie Anthrax produces toxins in lungs when spores get inhaled WWI sprayed island with anthrax spores and then put sheep on island after even 60 years sheep have been unable to survive o clicker question During sporulation what is the net change in genome equivalents No net Change ofgenome number stasis go from one copy of genome two copies of genome back to one copy so sporulation results in no overall change in genome number Bacterial Communiltati9n Quorum Sensing Communicate about how many of same and not same species present 0 Some bacteria able to communicate and determine local concentration of the same and other species of bacteria 0 Autoinducer systems Secretion of small and diffusible compounds Bacteria react to high concentrations of chemical and it alters the gene expression 0 Le Squid light organ Alivibrio sheri bacteria that at high concentration producing light Squid produces a sugar that allows these bacteria to growthen recruit A sheri to their light organ and contract the organ to produce light which makes them more dif cult to see from predators that are below them Clicker question What shape would you predict A sheri cells to have Rod Bio lms quorum sensing working in interspecies cooperation o Organized groups of bacteria Matrix of bacteria and carbohydrate glycocalyx Functions similar to a multicellular organism Increases antibiotic resistance and immune system Most of bacterial life is found in bio lms ie plaque on teeth is a bio lm of bacteria that forms due to recognition of high concentrations of more bacteria and solutes ie glucose in food we eat and eventually a high enough concentration forms and another species comes in and bio lm is created that consists of bacteria carbohydrates etc 00000


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