CIS Week 1 and 2 notes in book
CIS Week 1 and 2 notes in book REHB 126 - C01
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to REHB 126 - C01 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Jennifer May in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Rehabilitation and Human Services in Rehabilitation at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
z CIS 202 Week 1amp2 Notes from Book oz Introduction gt A program is a set of instructions that a pc follows to perform a task Ex Microsoft Word gt ProgrammerSoftware Developer is a person trained to create and test computer programs oz Hardware and Software gt Hardware is a physical device gt Central Processing UnitCPU runs programs and it is the most important component it use to be a big vacuum with switches but now it39s small chips known as microprocessors gt Main memory stores a program while program is running as well as data that the program is working with Commonly known as RAM where CPU can quickly access and it is usually volatile and temporary stored in chips o Volatile meaning once computer is turned off data from program not saved is gone gt Secondary Storage This storage can hold for long periods 0 Disk drives store data by magnetically encoding onto disk 0 External disk drives can be used as copies or to move data from one computer to the other Floppy disk drive records data on a oppy disk and can be removed from drive but has limited storage capacity and is slow 0 Universal Serial BusUSB stores in ash memory and is also known as memory sticks and ash drives 0 Optical devices like a compact discCD and digital versatile discDVDalso store data by it encoding as a series of pits on the disc surface oz Software gt Software is not optional you need it to have a computer to function System Software controls and manage the basic operations of a computer 0 Operating system controls the internal operations of the computer39s hardware manages devices connected allows data to be saved and retrieved and allows other programs to run 0 Utility Programs enhance the computer39s operation o virus scanners lecompression data backup 0 Software development tools are used to create modify and test software o assemblers compilers interpreters Application Software 0 Makes a computer useful for everyday task c Microsoft Word and web browsers oz How Computers Store Data gt gt The computer is divided into tiny storage locations known as bytes Each byte is divided into smaller storage known as bits which stand for binary digit Bits are tiny electrical components that hold negativepositive charges A bit turned off is known as a 0 and a bit turned on is known as 1 When a character A is stored it goes to numeric code 65 then it turns into a binary number American Standard Code for Information lnterchangeASCll has a 128 numeric codes that represent letters punctuation marks and other characters 0 This only de nes 128 characters so a more extensive encoding scheme is UNICODE which can give Chinese symbols Portuguese or Arabic Computers are digital where digital meaning anything that uses binary numbers 0 They use digital data which is stored in binary and a digital device is any device that works with binary data Pictures are composed of tiny pixels which is a picture element and each pixel on a computer is converted to a numeric code which is then stored as binary Music on a computer is stored in samples and the more the samples are divided into the more it sounds like the original song How a Program Works gt gt A program tells a CPU what to do by machine language which is also in binary CPU can do an entire instruction set reads data mathematics moving data and determining one value equal or greater to another Program stores to secondary storage bit has to be copied to main memory or RAM each time CPU executes it When CPU executes it it does the fetch decode execute cycle Fetch meaning it reads next instruction from memory into CPU Decode is when CPU decodes instructions to perform Execute means to perform these instructions Because machine language can be difficult for some they came up with Assembly Language Uses mnemonics which are short words that people can use The program assembler then turns it into machine language O 90 It is still a low level language like machine language 0 High level language allows you to create without knowing how CPU works which then allows you to focus mainly on the tasks gt Keywords operators and syntax are used for high level programming Keywords or reserved words only have one meaning Also has operators that perform operations like quotquot adds two numbers Syntax is a set of rules for writing a program You must learn this for a particular language gt Compiler and Interpreters both translates to binary A compiler translates to high level language into a separate machine language and then can be executed An interpreter translate and executes because they do both they usually don39t create separate machine language Statements written in high level language are called source code or code If a code has a syntax error misspelled missing character or incorrect use of operator an error message will appear and a programmer will attempt to x it Graphical User Interface gt User interface is a part of a computer that a user interacts with Example would be hardware like keyboard or video display gt Command line interfaceConsole Interface requires user to type up commands gt Graphical User InterfaceGUl allows user to interact through graphical elements on screen 9 GUI you can determine the order they are also known as event driven it responds to actions of user Objects gt Objects are not physical but it is a software component in a computer39s memory that has two general capabilities An object can store data as elds or properties and the operations they form are methods A window on the screen is a form object a label displays a text on the form and a text box appears that is rectangular and can accept keyboard input from user A button object appears as a button with a caption written across the face of it gt Visible objects are controls Some objects only exist in memory to help a program perform a task gt A class is a code that describes a particular type of object and it specifies what it can hold and perform gt C provides a basic framework with advanced operations and the classes and codes come from NET Framework NET Framework provides classes for forms text boxes labels and others lf NET Framework doesn t have a class you need C to create your own gt Visual C is a combination of NET Framework and C oz The Program Development Process gt For a program to work correctly usually involves six phases Understand Program Purpose 0 Input process and output o Ex input numbers of hours employee worked and hourly rate then process it which would be to multiply it After that put the output which would display the employee39s gross pay Display Graphical User lnterfaceGUl o It can be helpful to draw a sketch of it rst 0 Next as a visual C programmer you can use visual studio that allows you to design a program form Design the programs logic 0 Break down each task to series of logical steps which would be an algorithm 9 Algorithms written out in plain English are pseudocode a owchart is another tool that shows algorithms o It represented by three shapes oval parallelogram and rectangle gt Oval is at top and bottom representing start and end terminal gt Parallelograms are input and output which shows the steps where the program reads and outputs data gt Rectangles are for processing which would show mathematical calculation Write the Code 0 Refer to pseudocode or a ow chart for this step and use visual studio to write C code Correct Syntax Errors o If a program contains a syntax error and simple typing been corrected the program can be compiled and translated into an executable program Test Program and Correct Logical Errors 0 Logic errors do not prevent program from running but they will give incorrect results o If this occurs you have to debug code
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