Note 25 for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
Note 25 for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 25 01 Dec 2003 08 Dec Planning Recap Conservation and Economics CH12 Conservation Biology ECOL 406R506R University of Arizona Fall 2003 Kevin Bonine A Economics of Conservation B Syllabus for Wed readings grading criteria article summary C Naming the Creativity Forum 1 Bionetworks A Forum on Conservation Biology 2 Conservation In An Instant Seven problems and seven solutions that you can start working on today 3 A Conservation Awareness Event 4 Challenge yourself to be Earth Friendly 5 Conservation Meets Creativity The message of biodiversity comes in many forms Exam 3 35 ConBio Exam 3 19 Nov 2003 N22 mean 614 max 73 min 46 sd 82 25 25 Con Bio Exam 3 19 Nov 2003 wEC N22 mean 669 max 80 min 50 sd 86 15 05 r 0 bkbb g b b g q q lt2 Conservation Meets Creativity DRAFT WED Half Page handout for 08 Dec Christopher Bridget Amy Leonides are Iiasons Choose leader to work with other groups see above Project and presentation title all are emailing KEB then vote Your display needs table computer vertical surface pins tape etc Help with tables display boards etc time slot folks will contribute Time slots to be filled 81 Sign up sheet passed around see next slide Creativity Project Grading Criteria to be posted with project Turn in on Wed 03 Dec as well DRAFT TU ES Advertising Flier ideas Cori Carveth is working on this and an informational email Wildcat Ben Joslin dealing with ads and reporter Refreshments many people bringing handholdable edibles Suggestion and Feedback box Dana Backer Laptop with Ecological Footprint Cori Carveth Numbers for each entry Grading sheets KEB will bring Slide Projector for Jenna KEB will order Monday 08 December Schedule Forbes Lobby all are welcome to assist at anytime 800 900 Please bring and set up your presentation 820 900 Display boards delivered need to be put together 1020 or 1030 Main unveiling and presentation Aid and attendance 8 9 Ben Bridget Louise 9 10 Lauren Galia Amy 101115 406R506R everyone need to grade all presentations including your own 1112 Ginny Jordana Meghan 1213 Jenna Cori Galia Economics of Conservation Van Dyke Ch 12 1 Role of Human Population Growth 2 Neoclassical Economics 3 Externalities 9 4 Environmental Economics etc 5 Genuine Progress Indicator 6 Examples VanDyke 2003 Exponen al Growth NU NUNOgtequot Population size N N0 Time I Human Population Growth I Figure 143 Exponenlial growlh results in a continuously anelerating uirve of increase The UH 0 of uxponinhal The Si ol39 the human population passed lhe 7 billion marlzon Oclober lZ lEJ9 lime 0 and lime During his period lhc number ol IliLlIVldLl lS TlilS FDllL ClS d llUlJliling of lhe populalion lhal lids laken only 40 earsi inu39edses from NlO lo Nllll Noliw lhal lhl39 slope heminus growlh is Shown lnr d populdliou growing at rule r liL lWL CH Slucper is he mpUlnlinn quotmenses 4 Rlcklefs 2001 6 7 7 7 Oct 239 1999 L0gStIC A s 3 G g Maior scicnti c I quotg and medical L 4 97S advances begin 5 3 2 2 K E ll39idllSlrldl v revolullon 3 339 begins 39 quot39 2 I930 E Inflecunn BUbOnlC E K Point l plague l E 1 a r m I 1850 I 4 W Time I 8000 6000 4000 2000 BC AD 2000 1000 IZOO 1400 600 800 2000 Years Years I Figure m7 Logl grow l follows an Sishaped curve lho tunc IS symmelrloal ahoul the inllellinn Ful ll 2 lhal I Figure lH he human population increased rapidly with the development ul Ricklefs 2001 l mu elerallng and Llewlerallng phase ol population gmwlh lcdinology rlll3l W k Pams I ll Oriana H L Heller ind D Sadava liltquot llu mmw ul lidvu UN 51th MPH Umlu v l th 11 Sinduur Assoeldlt N39llmlm lnnd MA l F798 Role of Human Population Growth WDHU Dial Developmg Counmes Developed countries 2000 2050 210 Year mam Figure 19 Pam and projected popuxamu we idrdevetdped commas deve opmq munmes and me wand 195072120 More Khan 95 0quot me addmou n 36 mm people be wcan 1990 and 2030 s projec eo lO occur m dove opmg coumnes Data my Unwed Naums 1 mm Deop e added N everv 5 davs 4 Role of Human Population Growth Demographic Transition Stage I Pieindusliial Stage 2 Transitional Most developing countries Biriii rate i Birth rate and dealn rate number per 1000 per year Total population Stage 4 Stage 3 Postinduslilal industrial Much of E urope Low Increasing Veiy nigh Decreasing Low Zero Negative growiii rate growth rate growth rate growth rate growth rate growth rate growth rate Time Miller 2003 Figure 111a Generalized mocel of liie demographic liansition Higii Relative populaliun size Low Age Structure Diagrams note age of reproduction currently 30 under 15 17 billion Male Female Flapid Growth Slow Growth Zero Growth Negative Growth Guatemala United States Spain Germany Nigeria Australia Austria Bulgaria Saudi Arabia Canada Greece Sweden Ages 0 14 Ages 15414 Ages 4545 Miller 2003 your Fig 579 Figure 1112 Generalized population age structure diagrama ior countries Witti 1 rapid 1 Hm 2 slow mermli 3 zero to otzm and 4 negative population growtn rates Data from Population Reierence Bureau IPAT Developed Countries 12 billion people 19 high average per capita purchasing power have 85 world s wealth use 88 natural resources generate 75 waste and pollution impact of each unit of consumption Environmental Impact Population X Affluence X Technology of a society consumption per person Poor parents in a Developing Countries developing country 81 of the people need to have 70200 have 15 world s wealth children to equal the use 12 world s natural resources impact of 2 US produce 25 waste and pollution Children Relevant Laws Law of Conservation of Matter all atoms conserved there is no away First Law of Thermodynamics energy neither created or destroyed but may be converted from one form to another Second Law of Thermodynamics when energy changed from one form to another some of the useful energy degraded to low quality dispersed less useful energy usually lost as heat entropy Traditional Neoclassical Economics Miller 2003 Economy system of production distribution and consumption of goods and services Driven by wants and needs of govt society individuals Decisions about A what goods and services B how produce C how much D how distribute are made by individuals governments businesses Use resources A natural B human C financial D manufactured to make goods and services Supply and Demand Traditional Neoclassical Economics Miller 2003 Command 4 gt Free Market government markets competition information full cost pricing Capitalist Market System monopoly global free trade gov t subisidiestax breaksquotinsurancequot withhold information maximize profits pass costs to others future Traditional Neoclassical Economics Miller 2003 Government Intervention Prevent monopolies Dampen boom and bust cycles Basic services Social security welfare Stem fraud and other crime Disaster relief Protect common property resources Manage public lands etc Bush Tax Cuts Mean tax savings to top 1 over 4 years 103999 to bottom 20 45 Percent of tax benefits accruing to bottom 60 85 to top 1 389 of benefits Utne Reader NovDec 2003 Internal Market Costs vs Externalities Externa to Market Forces NoEe Poution Acid rain Erosion Goba Warming Eutrophication Disease Asthma Birth Defects Behavior and Intelligence Marginal net private bene ts Marginal enema cos it E m i m m vi 0 u Economic Activity 0 Figure l0l Vaanke 2W3 The ieicitionship betwen moiginoi net private benefits and mciiginoi exteinoi cost The optimoi ievei of economic GUMN occurs at point Q39 Heie pioaiction is reduced ion the tetei that Wimzes piotii am but reduces exieiiiei costs associated With pieciuciion Area 1 is the net benefit to society at Q i 2 is the totoi piohthom the economic octiiity 3 is the cmoum of pioht iost as economic KWWY is reduced From 0quot to Q and 3 A is the ieduction in exteinoi costs associated With the some reduction in economic octivit Arm PM 39139 mid Tinnor 1990 Pollution Troubled Waters Run Deep Pollution marginal costs marginal benefits ll is very expensive High A 200 IiSCI 9 Y 39 gel 0 This curve is in low wasiei 7 zero poiiuiion sum ol the we 5 a a hollow curve M051 Eelle39 l7DSl nhornvn eliuil aril removed 5 As more pollutants are 3 removed the coal at removxiig L it of pol each additional unit increases COSi pei i Low 0 25 50 75 100 mm 5 55 2 M Pei lags izi poiiulams removed 4 1 Miller 2003 Poiiumii riramir g 1476 Miller 2003 Figure 27 Mining Iluzopiniiumlvvuloluolluiion Tlli giamquot Shows MC lliiiiii iwn iiiquot a 50 DH aciual level Fi39i s dcpcnding an me noilulani Figure 26 The cast oi removing Bacl i adnliliurial unit of pollir nun rises Cleaning up a cenain amount oi pollution is a oru able bul at some pnmi liie cosl oi pollulicri CDHlml 55 greater than me harmful oasis hi the pullulion iCi sDCiElyi Education example Disadvantages Fossil Fuels Advantages Ol Amplesupplylor Need lo find 4293 years subsuiuze within Natural Gas 50 MS ow cosl win 1 3 coal C huge subsidies 39 Aililioiallv wk We encourages High nnl waste and energy yield discourages Seamh for 39 allemalives Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANWR iii 59 ed 15 land in wildlife refuge system betweemwmnes 19 chance of finding enough oil Lowlanduse to supply US for 24 months Ee gpi yweu Persian Gulf oil cheaper 39 39 Air pollulion when burned Releases co2 when burned Moderaie waler pollulron Ellicieni drained lion sysaarn Figure 525 Advantages and disadvantages ol using mnven lots oil spills likely mm asan nersvmwe pipelines vulnerable fragile tundra impact acreage fuel efficiency better route oil Fossil Fuels Natural gas OII Advantages 3 Dlsadvantages Natural Gas Ampmppres r at Nomenewaere Coa I25 years rusmtrce High net nnurgy L i Reteases C02 g yieth l when burned Ad t 39 D dv nt as r 39 r A VTquot ages V39s a Low cost wrrrt Drr cutt to transfer quot Desupp es S t 9W quot 19 h r I 3911 13965 arronr EDumrres 225900 years environmental C s 5 I J High net energy m39wquot mp m Less arr p HL IOquot Methane yrerd Severe tarrd than atrrer a greenhouse msmrbanse arr rossd tuols gas can teak Low cost with t porrunon and from prpernes huge subsidres water portution r WWW cop Mm g High rand use emissrons titan Shrpped egress cummsum mcrudrng mimg other tossrt ruels ocean es hrghty technotogy wen exproswe Irqumed devetoped Severe threat to Moderate mtvirulv L naturat gas LNG Wm 99W mental rmpact Arr poltution can Sometimes gt31 m quotmum new mwmem um be reduced wrm Hrng CO rmpmved emrsgims kamty trunsported burned off and teennmogy but when burned r by ptrw we wasted at wells adds to the cost because at tow Hateases Low tanu usu price redtoactrve Femalesand Good ruer rm RequlreS pipetme mercury mm 3 tual cells and drstr39rbulron gas turbrnes system Figure 630 Advantages and disadvantages ar usrng met as 5quot WWW resourcev Flgure 628 Advantages and disadvantages of using converts trurrat natural gas as an energy resource coal MrHer 2003 Nuclear Energy Accidents catastrophic 1 7 V sabotage Chernobyl Th reeMile Island What to do with Radioactive Waste 10k 240k years bury it ground bury it ice bury it ocean shoot into space descending subduction zones Yucca Mountain NV leaks faults volcanoes 6 shipmentsday for 30 years Nuclear Weapons Coal Ample supply High nel energy yloid Ve y high an puiiiiiiori High CO emismons ssoouzaoioon deems per year in u s Higii iaiia disriJmion from surlace mining Higii land use Low Cos With huge subsidies Nuclear Ample supply of Uranium Law iiei energy ylald Luwailpullulimi i mostlylromluel reprocessing Low CO emissions iiioszly imiii luel reprocessng About 5000 deaths per year iii u s Much lower land msmpiim lrom i surlace mining Moowate land use iiign cos Wlll39l l iuqe subsidies Figure 536 Comparison ol iiie risks of usmg iiuciear power and cesinuiiiiiig plill ils m DIQUUCG eleclricily Miller 2003 Tragedy of the Commons eg grazing fishing Market Failure Vaanke 2003 rignus iem MM mm mm mmi Figure 22 Conventional View or econme actiyily in a market economic system economic goods and money ow between households and businesses in a closed loop In many economr Flow of may ics texlhooks such market economic systems are shown as here as ll they were sellrcunzained and thus independent of the Meney ows from39 households natural resources that supporl all economies and all WE This k businesses a pay for model retntorces tne idea that unlimited economic Wde growth or any kind is sustainable Pure Market Economic System 141 Miller 2003 Flow of products Conventional Neoclassical Economics Flow of factors 0 production in t t t Private Property 39 Economic Growth always good Allocate based on price More always better for an individual curves Flowofmoney Money aws lrom businesses to households to pay for labor and othev production BUSlHeSSES m g Return to preneoclassical ideas r Ecological or r Sun r Environmental Economics ECONOMIC Sysrems 397 Pluduciin39i Figure 23 Escrogrrcar vrew or ecur rromrc ar39 viiv Ecuiogrcei ecma mrsi e mi ecarrorrrree as human subsysiems mm depmd on resources and same 5 prrwrden bv iiie sun and me a39 s rerurai resources A consume devcied i0 nnomrc gmw biodwershyr minerals raw materials energy 39 r satisiycvr expanmm vanis resources assum our fecirnoiugicai and dllulion 7 cieveiness rrrii aimw rm 390 mm degmda qn 1 surrsi ir es 0 mcimme any anuracycimg 7 i irriis on re Dumas m 2mm ir MC i keep nuiiuuun am rrrorrmeniai negradabnri at cepiebie icueis ioe ova ai mio isisrsuriia sucieiy r u musidrrrabb because 0 and degradation oinaiuiai resourc u merry oi W Hu r have ru stimulates Hemmg and eu a 142 Miller 2003 Scavengers ar we can t re row things away Lin39l39ted Global Emaan Limited Global Ecosystem pram Overwh elm Future Human Economics Waste Heat Eb Flgure 1210 An llen1nh39eIew39 urf Ihe relunmehlp hawBen lhe 5301anan and the enulmnmenl us understand wllhn the lIJME39o39ulill tl anu1rcl1menl39al ECncmIzs Thez ph39 31 err1n2nrrn3nl39 prin39ld i El393939 mulennls and energy ack lnanla39IEMablefl manna5 How IIa1e Illel lE IZUlvquot3 a slnlr lcr vanilla5 and lze39y39 llfa suppcrl i y liWG Inclean wnl39er 1r ClllT39rZIlE reguldlan lacl and tlsdl39a39asllvf Haveer II39 15 llrnlra glch I II In Ila F sl ll39rEl1lJn39rZIl39I Etnamfg 39 393 srndl relative h ll39Ie tllasphare and erLIIZ El raw malerlzlls and 3an lZII waste5 WEE relalin39al39g large lb 15 lhe erann ecjnzurnf39 has grwun Ihe some and slnl egIzns cpl ll39e lZIlESFhEE l IIZl39JE dimlnlshed because val use and degl3dallcru and 5 l39r139E IJrjevs nl tbs3d 39s39u ZISlE Thus the humcn ectunan39rf must Increaslnglv make enz lmnrnenlnl tanslrjlnls I mne 5 grids and saw35 rrl d pjmg all the waile lhal EJJ39Zl39I FfEijJCllt creates VanDykel 2003 Ihelr capIll l6 prcn39lde requot E39IIIFlICll39 c lenjllcn In Fwd 39 H ri fx39ll Vb figuquot I3939Iu39 3939 mquot IIU IJFJ What is the purpose of the economic system to what end all of this wealth Ultimate value beyond market OClassical Economics 1Environmental Economics catchall term think cyclically 2SteadyState Economics John Stuart Mill 1700 s Herman E Daly in out Virtue and character higher goals than material wealth 3Sustainable Development Lester Brown do away with many subsidies replace income tax with environmental tax Stocks and Flows 9 Entropy Nicolas GeorgesRoegen quota Cadillac now means fewer human lives later Natural Capital and Natural Resources everything flowing in natural economy and human economy S pl lls sMpIL llS has W years nme recent 9 years an instant ln ll your existence Solar 39 Capital 1 pmVldrJS 99 37 a j UnLil about 120 Wm llunlerrgatherev39sWhU L a food for SUI39ViVEI E Chang 5 have 00 Iiun which l 2 the lm about27 firm mi Recycling A resnl ms Vll dl chemicals burl and carbon oxygen purliiqalmn nitrogen walar 1m phosphorus sullurl Renawanle snergyreseurces i sumwirld lnwlng waleyg mjar mal heal plan mailer biomass 3923 Natural m Capital r zllleASUppD allqg cbnomlc services prenewabla energy resallrces loll coal nalural gas Nonrenswable mineral resumes copper aluminum iron uranium r er 3 1 crad glallon th WWW Alma growth Miller 2003 Figure 12 Elielgy lrani llle sllri solar Capllal and iialuial resources natural Capilal ellpporl and sustain all lile and all EL D leleS Drl Hie earlli provide gl is accomplisl Consunml39s and pul39pel39snn or bolli r u Economic Growth vs Development efficiency sophistication utility Nonrival air to breathe or nonexclusive goods UV protection from ozone Producer PaysPolluter Pays Dramaticay less waste packaging scrubber sludge TaxationSubsidies Pollution Rights Precautionary Principle Insurance PFOdUCt itself Government strategies and regulation Stable democratic government required END
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