New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Bio 102, notes for first test

by: Rachel Klein

Bio 102, notes for first test ANTH 110 - 007

Rachel Klein
GPA 3.94
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document

Human Origins
Joanne Lorraine Devlin

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Get these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Human Origins

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Human Origins notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Human Origins
Joanne Lorraine Devlin
Class Notes
Biology, biology 102, Bio, Bio 102, intro to bio, Intro Bio




Popular in Human Origins

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Klein on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 110 - 007 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Joanne Lorraine Devlin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 208 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr


Reviews for Bio 102, notes for first test


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/25/16
Biology 102 Introduction and Gene cs Test on Friday 012916 I What is science a Starts with 2 variables independent and dependent then make observations and try to draw a conclusion b Correlation doesn t equal causation so we can use the scienti c method to determine validity c lnductive reasoning speci c to general i This cat falls a lot so all cats fall a lot ii Anecdotal reasoning iii Needs to go a step further use deductive reasoning d Deductive reasoning broad to speci c i Cats land on their feet Miss Kitty is a cat So if I drop her she should land on her paws e Then form a hypothesis ll Scienti c Method a Observation b Question i Determine the dependent and independent variables c Hypothesis i Ho null hypothesis 1 Cheese does not mean death not hypothesis ii Ha alternative hypothesis 1 Cheese does mean death Prediction e Experiment i Need control group f Revise and repeat hypothesis prediction and experiment lll Looking for Reliable Sources a To nd an article on a topic i Go to wwwlibutkedu ii Click quotArticles and databasesquot found underneath the search book iii Click quotWeb of Sciencequot under Most Popular Databases when searching for sciencerelated information iv Search from there b To nd information about a scholar i Go to wwwschoargoogecom ii Type the person s name in the search bar iii Click quotUser Pro les for quot c Second method is good to use when you hear a certain scholar quoted something and you want to verify that person s validity Q Biology 102 Introduction and Genech Test on Friday 012916 Genes Individuals and Mutations I Introduction a Genetics reveal evolutionary processes b DNA l mRna tRNA or ara l ribosome translation protein c Structure phosphate sugar backbone with nitrogenous bases ATGC form a double alpha helix d All DNA is in the nucleus packaged around proteins chromosomes e Chromosome form a genetic match called a genome seen in a karyotype ll Transcription DNA l RNA a Process i Enzymes go into the DNA ii Double helix is unzipped by RNA polymerase an enzyme 1 This is allowed by the structure of DNA 2 Double helix 2 parts coding strand and template strand iii Once unzipped the RNA is transcribed from the template strand so that it is identical to the coding strand b Occurs on the exons see below lll Gene segment of DNA that codes for protein a Base pairs i Adenine A and thymine T are attached ii Guanine G and cytosine C are attached b 2 segments in a gene that are mixed up together i Exons coding for proteins ii lntrons sometimes the purpose is unknown or they are small pieces of DNA are not very important c Alternative Splicing cut up exons and uses them to make different proteins i There are 20000 human genes which becomes 200000 products ii These several products are available because of this process d Regulatory Segments appear at the beginning of a segment of DNA and controls DNA strand i Controls whether or not it is transcribed ii Controls how quickly or slowly iii Other things too e These 2 processes alternative splicing and regulatory segments are the main things that allow for complex organisms i Different organisms have different sized genomes why 1 Phenotypic complexity quotsafe answerquot Jimmy Cheek 2 Complex diet has a larger 3 Size difference itself genome than a monarch Biology 102 Introduction and Genech Test on Friday 012916 4 Longer life longer developmentalgrowth period generally need more a Other reasons too these are just examples IV Evolution a Where does variation come from i Point mutations 1 During DNA replication one nucleotide changes to another TCCA l 1TCA a Important to note that it happens during replication 2 Causes of point mutations a RNA polymerase is a big bulky mix of enzymes can easily mess up 3 Effects of point mutations a Silent mutations nothing changes in produced protein b Nonsense mutation entire DNA strand is quotturned offquot and nonfunctional c Essentially lots of different things can happen 4 Gradual Change vs Episodic Change a Gradual more common something simple like changing in hair color b Episodic i Homeobox hox Genes control how your body is put together during development where does the ear go the elbow etc ii Example Question Mark Ear Syndrome ACS instead of having jaw these people have 2 maxilla the genes that control development of ear and jaw were mutated ii Chromosomes and Crossing Over 1 Crossing over happens during sexually reproducing organisms 2 When cells are replicated there are crunched down in chromosomes a During rst stage of meiosis the chromosomes break apart from where they are and reattach b quotExchange of armsquot 3 Causes of crossing over a Find that this occurs more when in stressful environment 4 Effects of crossing over a Products that are completely unlike the parental cells Genech Biology 102 Introduction and Test on Friday 012916 5 Asexual Organisms vs Sexual Organisms with regard to Reproduction a Asexual Pros i Faster don t need to nd mate ii Offspring can reproduce quickly too b Asexual Cons i No genetic diversity nearly always geneUcaHyidenUcal 1 Problematic when consider Natural Selection Sex Polyploidization 1 When chromosomes don t separate during genetic replication 2 Entire duplication of a genome 3 Generally a bad thing a Offspring are usually sterile 4 Usually happens in plants or vertebrates iv Other mutations can arise from sexual reproduction 1 Deletions repaternings duplications etc V Populations and Species a Population Genetics vi vii Trying to gure out allele frequency and the distribution of genotypes 1 Alleles are the codes for genes one person only has 2 for each trait Tries to determine the cause of that distribution How do we asses this genetic variability 1 Genetic variability differences in sequences among individuals Genotype Entire sequence of one individual Gene pool all the available alleles in one population everyone s genotype Population Genetics of Homo sapiens 1 Low variability relative to other species 2 Young species founder effect 3 85 of total variability is found in local populations but this varies 4 7 of total variability is found among local populations within continents a 7 of alleles are only found in North America 5 8 is found among continental populations 6 Relatively few markers distinguish geographicethnicracial groups 7 Suggests rapid expansion of our species Need to be more quantitative l HardyWeinberg Equilibrium Biology 102 Introduction and Gene cs Test on Friday 012916 1 The frequency of alleles in a population reaches equilibrium in one generation and stays at genetic equilibrium generation after generation 2 Example birds on Galapagos islands whose beak size changes annually depending on the weather equilibrium wasn t met so scientists knew that something was going on b How do we get from populations to species i Happens along evolutionary continuum not necessarily 1000000 years ii Divergence at what point are they 2 different species c Classi cation how we sort the world around us i Species homo sapiens 1 Biological Species Concept de nes species as a group of interbreeding organisms problematic bacteria most famous one 2 Best concept offspring resemble parents 3 Essentially can be de ned so many ways that there is hardly an actual de nition ii Genus hominoids iii Family hominids iv Order primates v Class mammals vi Phylum chordates we have a backbone vii Kingdom animals viii Domain eukaryotes


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.