ANT 160 LEC 1
ANT 160 LEC 1 ANT 160
Popular in Cultural Diversity in the Modern World
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Fulton on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Renee Bonzani in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in the Modern World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Dr Rene e Bonzani Lecture Outlines for ANT 160 Cultural Diversity in the Modern World What is Anthropology 0 Anthropology the scientific study of human beings their origins distribution physical attributes and culture 0 Anthropology is comprised of 4 subfields physical or biological cultural linguistics and archaeology 0 Physical anthropology the study of the origins and evolution of human beings and how and why modern human populations vary biologically Cultural anthropology the study of culture or customary ways of thinking and behaving in different societies 0 Linguistics the study of languages Archaeology the study of past human societies and cultures and their changes through time 0 History of the Origins of Anthropology Imperialism Travelers missionary accounts colonial reports 0 Empires always collect information on the people they subjugate for purposes of taxation and control Only in the XIX 18 century did the discipline of anthropology develop The British and French empires initiated the collection of information on the other in a systematic way 0 Anthropology initially was at the service of the empires 0 The advances in biology taxonomy geology stratigraphy in archaeology and economic studies created a basis for the development of anthropology as a discipline 0 Factors that in uenced the rise of anthropology The desire to understand the variation in customs in the colonies demanded a clear knowledge of exotic customs such as marriage and religion 0 The curiosity in the past of those that were colonized was aroused due to the complexity observed in these regions For example the ruins of the Egyptians Persians and Inca The need to manage the colonized peoples demanded an understanding of the legal structures that they had 0 That is why early works in anthropology were written by lawyers such as Sir Henry Sumner Maine who published in 1861 a comparative study entitled Ancient Law 0 Another lawyer was Lewis H Morgan who is known as the father of US anthropology 0 His most important works were on the study of kinship and on the evolution of society US Cultural Anthropology Roots 0 Lewis Morgan 18181881 Born in Rochester New York Main books League of the Iroquois 1851 Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family 1871 and Ancient Society 1877 0 He proposed the evolution of societies in three periods Savagery Barbarism and Civilization Unilineal evolutionist 0 Morgan had in uence on Karl Marx as is evident in his notebooks and texts 0 Morgan creates the basis of kinship studies 0 Definition of Complexity From Carmichael 1995 Complex societies are those in which hierarchically ordered social components exhibit marked functional differentiation and specialization The components are therefore functionally interdependent in that no individual or group can fulfill all of the required roles and duties pg 181 Example Anthropology timeline The rise of the cultural anthropology school Franz Boas 18581942 founder of the first university department of anthropology in the USA at Clark University in 1888 Professor at Columbia Study of the Kwakiutl the potlatch Born in Germany Boas attacked the idea of crosscultural comparison as well as unilineal evolution and the eugenics movement He condemned it in 1916 The psychological basis of cultural traits is identical in all races Promoted the conception of cultural relativism all cultures are equal and comparable there are no inferior or superior cultures It is impossible to order cultures in an evolutionary scheme Publications The mind of primitive man 1911 and several others Other in uences in US anthropology Karl Marx The Capital 1867 Unilineal evolution of society from primitive communism to capitalism and socialism in progressive stages Herbert Spencer 18121903 The evolution of society unilineal evolution principals of sociology Edward Burnett Tylor 18321917 Primitive Culture 1871 Origins of religion sacrifice animism Savagery promiscuous animism James G Frazer The Golden Bough 1890 A study in magic and religion 12 volumes Totemism and Exogamy 1910 In uences of sociology Emile Durkheim 185 8 1907 The Division of Labor in Society 1893 In this book Durkheim uses the concept of function in analogy to an organism that seeks to fulfill its needs in society Defines the difference between mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity Mechanical solidarity archaic form of solidarity societies organized in clans are examples of mechanical solidarity Organic solidarity product of the development of the division of labor Collective or common conscience the totality beliefs and sentiments common to the average citizen which forms a determinate system having a life of its own The internal differentiation of the society favors the rise of individuality and complexity in What is called organic solidarity Each organ has to work together to maintain the organism in this case for example in state societies Max Weber 18641920 father of sociology The Sociology of Religion 1922 The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism 19045 1920 Agrarian Sociology of Ancient Civilization 1897 1889 1909 Conceptual contribution Ideal types Social action and charismatic power Superstructure The role of ideology Arnold van Gennep 18731957 born in Germany Rites of passage 1908 Work on totemism comparison of rites and myths Study of the folklore of rural France Marcel Mauss 1 872 1950 French Anthropologist quotThe Gift Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societiesquot 1967 Dealing with gift exchange and 1 the obligation to give 2 the obligation to receive 3 the obligation to repay
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