Review Sheet for NATS 101 at UA
Review Sheet for NATS 101 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
PART 2 of the KEY to unlocking the topics of The GREENHOUSE EFFECT GLOBAL WARMING amp OZONE DEPLETION OBJECTIVES To understand the key differences between amp f based on the principlesof the cartoon views of Solar vs Terrestrial radiation SOLAR SHORTWAVES SOLAR SHORTWAVES VTERRE39STRIAL 39 TERRESTRIAL EONGWj Y LONGlllAV In these amp upcoming gures for convenience quot 39 39 solar shortwave radiation is a W terrestrial Iongwave radiation LowerEnergy review Energy given on by both the sun and Earth r and emitextadiationa39tw quot electromagnetic wavelengths review Come forth into the light of Things Let nature be your teacher William Words worth Wavelength Type of radiation Longwaves 5 10 m 104m Long radio waves 103 m Standard AM radio broadcasts 102 m TV broadcasts FM radio broadcasts E I e 0 1 m 100 mm TV broadcasts Short radio waves to 001 m 10 mm Microwaves 1mmr QRedlight Spectrum mm wwm 0 01 quot n 10 m Infrared radiation 5 orange gm 1 um 10000A Yellow lioht 01 um 1000 1 Green light 39 100A Shortwaves ewe gm 10A I Violet light G E The electromagnetic spectrum p High frequencies Typical Sources Frequency Hz Short wavelengths am Object T hat Send out Waves hose Size 5 the a This Frequency A Same as This Wavelength Nucleus 1022 Processes by protons and Gumma my neutrons in atomic nuclei 1020 4 X ray Eleclrons in atoms 1018 Atom highenergy processes Ultraviolet 104 DNA molecule Amoeba Electrons in atoms 1016 lowenergy processes l T hermnl vibrations of 1014 1o 6 Fine dust particle molecules 4 Visible Microwave oven 1012 4 maxed 104 Radar antenna l Millimeter 1010 L 10 2 Centimeter l FM radro TV antenna 108 1 Meter l AM radio antenna 106 r 102 Soccer eld Electronic Kilmneter L 104 L 104 1 60Hz powerline 102 1o6 radiation 1 l 108 V Low frequencies Longmlmellalgths Review p 33 KEY BANDS IN THE SPECTRUM FOR GLOBAL CHANGE UV Visible IR NIR Type of Electromagnetic Radiation Range of Wavelengths in units indicated Typical Source Gamma rays 10 quotquot to it 39 in meters m using scienti c notation highenergy processes within nucleus caused by the strong force Ultraviolet radiation Visible light Infrared radiation Near htfrared radiation tee ES pp 485 Far Infrared are 551 4875 V lCl39OW dVBS AM Radio wttves 07 to 30 up to 1000 err 39 in micromclcrs ttmt 0001 to 04 in micrometers ttnt 04 to 07 electrons moving quantum leaps within individual atoms 07 10 in micrometers tun 10 30lupt01000 10 l0 IO quot in meters m using scienti c notation 10t0 10 3 in meters in using scienti c nt39rtttLintt chaotic thermal kinetic motion of molecules due to their thermal energy Aw gm A 5392 a Fammmmrm WWW electronically produced by microwave oven electronically produced waves vibrate in human made electrical Circuits Review p 33 THE RADIATION LAWS The Sun s energy is emitted in the form of electromagnetic radiation but also some LW The Earth s energy terrestrial is also emitted in the form of electromagnetic wavelengths LW substances emit radiation as long as their temperature is above absolute zero 2731 00 or 0 Kelvin The Sun is very similar to an ideal emitter or Black body NOTE the Earth isn t as ideal as a black body J a hypothetical object that absorbs all of the radiation that strikes it It also emits radiation Eucluy ux at 39a mamquotum rate if Blackbodies ideal emittersquot exhibit a de ned relationship between the quot ie amouhtof radiation ux they give off amp their ofthatradiation This relationship is called the r where is Planck s constant m m H rTTi iULti lEm w39 2 itzirrgmgg K R rquot I radiate at the gt 7 speed of lightlike WW 0330 m e a blackbody bqt my energy flux Is m 7 131 Ll GREATEST at wemm cegag me D o D SHORTER wavel ngths 53 me ammmt quot e H I the wame ammhj f This can be depicted in a graph Pianck function blackbody radiation curve x 9 c c O a Wavelen h longer An emittin blackbody s SHORTER wavelengths have HIGHER Intensity radiation and greater energy ux than the LONGER wavelenths The shorter the wavelength the GREATER the intensity of the energy flux 1 Pair up with one or two other students Secton 91 108 2 Get out a piece of paper and put all of your names on it iii n asfi li Stephane Student 3 Set up the paper this way 3 Q3 4 Write in 3 i no 3 changing your final answer 5 GRADE YOUR PAPER AS YOU GO ALONG Q1 Gamma radiation involves a greater energy ux than microwave radiation True False Both wavelength bands have the same energy same know True False Both Don39t We haven t learned enough yet to answer this If the substance is an ideal emitter black body The total of radiation given off is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute where a is a constant hasavalue of 567 x 1 0 398 Wlm392 or567x108Jm2 and T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin Energy a T 4 This law links the total amountof I that is emitted by a blackboin T0 the body s e actually the 4th power of the body s absolute temperature The total amount of energy ux described by the StefanBoltzmann Law is proportional to the area under the Planck function curve See p40 in 860 m HOT so I emit LARGE amounts K of high intensity 9 energy fix s quot 39 rm COOL so I emit LESSER amounts of energy K plus my ENERGY is at a lower intensity than Mr Hotshot th p 9ver Because it means that the of radiation given off by a body is a very sensitive function ofits Therefore small chanes in temperature can lead to BIG changes in the amount of radiation given off a 02 Which would you use 39 orthe r IO accurately compute the total amount of a i j emitted to space by planet Earth the The Planck Function The Stefan Boltzmann Law Both of them together 0 0 7 Planck Stefan Both Neither Neither one is appropriate 3039 because the Earth is NOT a blackbody Q3 Which Would you use the orthe to computetne total amount ot energy 39 emitted to space by planet Earth gt The Planck Function The Stefan Boltzmann Law Neither one is appropriate because you would need to i know the wavelengths of PM 3mquot Neither Dom radiation the Earth emits M W 39 Don t know allwe need to know is e of39 the emittiin Earth s surface What T is From geonfietry Do you remember the formula for compu n the area of a sphere so See box on p 42 in 860 for mare details As substances get HOTTER the wavelength at which radiation is emitted will become SHORTER Wien s Law can be represented as where isthe I inthe spectrum at which the energy 9 eakoccu rs indicates that I is the absolute 39 of the body and i sai A with a valueofr2898 if is expressed in micrometers Note the INVERSE relationship between wavelength and temperature 23 g g E Wavelength See p40 in SGC max constant T Inverse relationship between wavelength and temperature The hotter the bony the shorter the wavelength I The cooler the body the longer the wavelengthquot Because it means that I quot l ke the sun that radiate like blackbodies will radiate the maximum amount of energy at f while bodieswill radiate most of their energy at r v I I m COOL so I l m HOT sol emit em39t my my maximum maximum amount amount of of radiation at I K 39 39 LONGER radiation at wavebngths SHORTER k wavelengths r 7 h v m 0m m mGWDrficm SM 1 gm i My W E JUUUEJUQSJ KUng Wein s is the law behind this EL cartoon g 104 39 SOLAR g 103 swammas 3 102 TERRESTRIAL E 101 39 LONGVlAYES39 10 1 1 10 00139 10 Wavelength pm NOTE this is a logarithmic scale values increase exponentially to the right THE RADIATION LAWS Recap of Laws 2 4 RU The Sun can emit energy at ALL aneuengt s uu I the amount of energy emitted is inversely related to its Mum blackbody radiation curve wavelength Radiation flux EoT4 IIII m 39 K gt rrkn I m COOL so I emit I39m HOT sol emlt lt LARGE amounts LESSEeizgFnts 0f f 399 39quottens39ty K plus my ENERGY is 1 gt 7 than Mr Hotshot over there energy Vatalower Intensity 7 r r r QaT a a I m HOT sol emit I my maximum amount of radiation at SHORTER avelengths W E lt93 B m wa Mix L I m COOL so l emit my maximum amount of radiation at LONGER wavelengths r r W E m am 632 A The m the body the shorter the wavelength The cooler the body the loner the wavelength SHORTER wavelengths have HIGHER intensity radiation than LONGER wavelengths j The hotter the body the much greater 4 the amount of energy flux or radiation e view imioe orre y the lmaTI The hotter the body the shorter the wavelength The cooler the body the loner the wavelength B Wands Emotion E SHORTER wavelengths have HIGHER intensity radiation than LONGER wavelengths The atter me body we muah greater tne amount of energy ux or radiation TODAY S NEW FEATURE Short video on The inverse square law describes how solar a ecreases with increasing 5 from the source of the flux iev the radiation the Sun The amount of radiation passing through a particular unit area is tothe of the distance of that unit area from the source If we j 7 39 the distance from the source to the interception point the intensity of the radiation 2 a iby a factor of If we quot z the distance trom the source to the interception point the intensity 39 L 1 by atactor ot OR if we f r 1 r the distance from the source to the interception point by a factor of 2 or 3 the intensity of the radiation 39 4 a by a factor of or Because it means that t 39 f from the source of energy eg the Sun can result in in the quot preceived by planet s surface LUL KS amp THE 3 PMNETS lt1 3me f9 k f GOLDILOCKS 8 THE 3 PLANETS Yikes Venus is too HOT GOLDILOCKS 8 THE 3 PLANETS Brrrrrrrrr Mars is too COLDE GOLDILOCKS amp THE 3 PLANETS Vis this is what the Goldilo39ck s Effect is illustrating amp how much solar energy the lanet re ects a back lbe 0 must also be taken into account 39 Whether or not the planet hasa reenhouse effect must a so be taken into account Both 2 amp 3 are correct Some substances emit and absorb radiation at 39 39 l ms IS mainly true 0139 gases Why Recall concept of electron energy states shells allowing absorption of photonswavelengths of and concept ct certain 1 allowing absorption of photonswavelengths of a becauseof how the gas molecules vibrate bend and Fast rotatlon rate rev I e W The frequency amp wavelength of a photon absorbed by a given electron atom molecule will be the same as the frequency I wavelength with which it is emitted DEFINITION OF GREENHOUSE GASES Once IR is absorbed by the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere it can be emitted back to the Earth s surface to heat it all over again Or it can be emitted upward to outer space and be lostfro m the system altogether IR radiation is absorbed by GH gases in the atmosphere and emitted out tospace sow snoarwmas TERRESTRIAL LONGWAVES 17 r i IR radiation is emitted from the Earth s surface right out to space through IR windowquot IR radiation is absorbed by GH gases in the atmosphere and emitted back to Earth Law 6 says that 39 Different gases absorb amp emit radiation at different wavelengths How do we know which wavelengths are absorbedemitted by different gases The pattern of electromagnetic wavelengths that are absorbed amp emitted by a particular atom or combination of atoms is called its ABSORPTION SPECTRUM or its ABSORPTION CURVE 5 oo Atmospheric Absorption 5 So 02 03 04 06 08 l An absorption curve another view ii i quotH l u We use an absorption curve to show the relationship between wavelength along the horizontal axis and of energy at a given wavelength thatis r vertical axis Make asketc39h question Drawin the curve for a hypothetical gas that abSOrbsIemits ALL IR wavelengths but amp visible or UV 1 00 l 4 04visible 07 IR gt 100039 Wavelength ym Draw in the curve for a hypothetical gas that absorbsemits ALL UV wavelengths but no visible or IR 1 00 4 A 0 4 visibleOJ IR gt 1000 Wavelength pm Curve for a hypothetical gas that absorbsemits ALL IR wavelengths but no visible or UV 39 Curve for a hypothetical gas that absorbsemits ALL UV wavelengths but no visible or IR IIJIMI l I 1 01 03 05 07 1 5 10 01 03 05 0739 1 Absorption 96 01 03 05 07 1 5 10 Match the right absorption curve 01 03 0507 1 5 10 w i e g h t g a s Wavelength micrometers Ch0i09539 H20 02 03 N20 CH4 COZ Match the GAS with the Absorption Curve CHOICES 002 H20 0203 N20 amp I 2 a a A o m 1 2 I 61 E E lt 03 04 06 08 l 15 2 3 4 5 6 Wavelengthpm I 2 G 14 0 m 3 2 x Q E O E lt2 Atmospheric window 03 04 06 08 I 13 2 3 Wavelengtlmlm Absorption by ALL the gases in the atmosphere put together ie curve for the Whole Atmosphere thru UVVis thru IR atmospheric gt 39 atmospheric window window V V ll1 7hulc vlmm Lhm n 03 04 06 08 l 15 2 3 4 Wavelen 1 u mime NIR Bottom p 38 vmunsm mvdisht IE SOSPIIERE STRATOSPHE RE Th pattern eledtromagn tic wavelengths thatare M 3939 39amp by038 02 i l 02 and 03 03 04 06 08 I I5 2 a 3 E E lt 7 3 5 lt1 n HQ Wavelength nm 200 n D a Solar ux photons cm 2 3 1 39 nm 1 G 5 l O Ozone absorption coef cient atm 1 1015 1 1r a o 249 EL W m 333 most WEI uvc ozone absorption coefficient HIGH cm We ran out of time so the following slides will be addressed in the next class Solar radiation is mostly in Most visible amp UV wavelengths are f f 5 through the atmosphere but 39 on theirwayto surface by 02 and 03 2 Most of the incoming solar energy absorbed by the Earth and the atmosphere is absorbed i a which then radiates IR outward to heat up the atmosphere 3 Terrestrial radiation is mostly in 39 Much of the outgoing terrestrial radiation is before to space ahd it is resVia This is the quotGreenhouse Effectquot 4 The reradiation at Lw IR energy to the Earth s surface by uII gases IS wnat Keeps tne Earth in the quot v v Torwaterto be present in all 3 phases andjust right for US tOO Thanks Greenhouse