Class Note for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
Class Note for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 05 05 Sept 2006 Ch3 Callicott Leopold Conservation Biology ECOL 406R506R 6699 University of Arizona agd 0 Fall 2006 aweS 8N8 q Cog Kevin Bonine Y Kathy Gerst Ch4 Costanza et al 1997 Driessen 2004 for Thurs Lab this Friday 08 Sept 2006 meet S side BSE see website for lab readings later today Housekeeping 05 September 2006 Upcoming Readings today Textbook chapter 3 Callicot39t 1997 Leopold Thurs 07 Sept Text Ch4 Costanza 1997 Driessen 2004 Tues 12 Sept Textbook Ch 4 Short oral presentations 12 Sept Gabe V gtil and Kim Baker 14 Sept open 19 Sept Tara Luckau and Frank Emmert 21 Sept Grant Rogers and Jeremy Daniel Z Gradino for Oral Presentations Content quality of content relevance to conservation issues 20 points Presentation speaking slide design professionalism 10 points Response to questions 5 points 2 Should intrinsic or instrumental values be the basis for planning conservation efforts Why due 07 Sep Anzona Geologlcal Socle Defining a Sclence strategy tortne 21st century F Fatrlck Leany Acting Director uses lnnsuites Hotel 475 North cranaoaAvenue Tucson Lecture ate oo PMruesoay septembers SCHEDULE CASH EAR e an FM DlNNER 7 an FM TALK a an FM WlTH RESERVATlON MEMBER 2u uni GUEST 22 uni STUDENT 7 an Withbutreservatibns ybu may nbtget dinner ltybu dd an extra 2 an Will be charged Tb make dinner reservatibns please call the AGS answering machine at 52m 66375295 by 5 an F M an the Friday betbre the meeting Leave name numberbt attendees and Whether avegetarian urluwrsalt meal is required This number can be usedtbr tieldtrib reservatibns and leaving messages tbr Sbciety unicers Please cancel ybur reservatlurl via the answering machine itybutind thatybu Will be unable tb attend Abstract The United States has enbrmbus mineral and natural resburce Wealth and bebble have benetitedtrbm that Wealth sincetrbm the earliestdays Minerals are the essental building blbcks cit sbciety Theysustain lle and brbvidethe Wealth thatallbWs ustb buy gbbds and services thatWe canndt brbvide burselves VEtdEspltE their encirmcius imbbrtancei sbciety is largely unaWare cit the rule minerals play in bur everyday lives As burglbbal bbbulatibn curtinuestb rlsE currently exceeding 6 5 millibn bebble WDVldWldE cbnsiderable namral and anthrbbbgenic pressures are being placed an burenwbnmentand natural resburces Sburce U S census Bureau The increasing demand and cumbetitibntbr burminerals and natural resburces have placed uUrNatlurls leadership and land managers in the spmllgnt faclngme daunting challenge crtrying tb balance the needs at sbciety andthe ecbsystem With the need tbr cuntinued ecbnbmic gerth With an estimated value cit dbmestically brbcessed rlurlrmel mineral materials tbtaling 478 billibn in 2uu5 an increase btabbut a percent dyer 2mm the demand turmetals and minerals by emerging industrial giants china and lndia directly curresbbnd With the grdWing demand and brbductibn in the mining cit cbbberi ian are mulybdenum and aggregates crushed sturlE sand and gravel Sburce USGS Mineral cbmmbdity Summaries 2uus rebbrt Here in the SbuthWest We db nbt have tb lbbktartb see hbW these cbnsiderable demand tbr brbductibn crthese minerals have brbvided turthe ecbnbmy and altered the landscape States like Arizbna thtrbm lean 2min Witnessed their states bbbulatibn nearly dbublei are tbdaytacingthe challenge tb brcrvide bbth enicientand ecbnbmic recbvery er mineral cbmmbdities in a Way that ensuresthe security and health utthe ecbsystem and cuntinuetb meetthe needs cit the nging bbbulatibn The needtb identity sblutibns has resulted in an increasing demandtbr unbiased science data intbrmatibn and pruducts mbre sbecincally practices that are designed tb identity and brbmbte mbre enicient science and business brbcesses that reeb bace With and anticipate sbcietys tuture needs The USGS With its five tunctibnal disciplines Elulugy Gengraphy Gaulugy Gebsbatial lntbrmatibn and Water has endeavbred tb lbbk atthese namral envirbnmental and ecbnbmic issues in a hblistic manner And While much cit bur sciertitic tbcus is shiningthards anticibjating neW and changing resburce demands such as the shirttrbm cbal and Elli tb namral gas and technblbgydriven substitutlurls bthertbcused encirts cbncentrate bn develb ing neW principles and cbnce ts tb increase sciertitic understanding at A rate I as E SWyear Number of species on island A i s E O rate i la small SWyear large Number of species on island A gt I Val near rate E SWyear 0 Number of species on island Values Ethics Philosophy Basis for estimau39on of worth Systematic organization of valus VALUE OF BIODNERSITY Instrumental utilitarian Intrinsic inherent Ta I I e 21 Four Categories of the Instrumental Value of Biodiversity Category Example Goods Fuud fuel ber medicine Survices Pnumnw recychng muoan my non hameosta c regulalxun Infomation Genmc engincurmg applied hian gypun uzku Fsyvhnrspuitual AzsLhehcbmu mlminusavw scienti c knnwlsdge Caiiimtt 1997 Values Ethics Philosophy Monetizing discount rate rates of growth and reproduction Economic development short sighted BCA Valuation methods willingness to pay accept travel cost existence value contingent valuation bequest value Madagascar Periwinkle Argument Callicott p 30 Arrogant and Trivial 10 Figure 22 Convsnu ona new or economic activ y In a market economu sysiem economic goods and money ow between nouseho s and businesses n a dosed aup In many econom Ics ex muks such marke eccnomic systems are Shawn as he as H they were Selbcamained and thus Independent or the natura esuurces that suppurl a ecnnomies and a Me This mode remorse Ina dea Ina unnmited econunnc growm of any kind Is sustamable Pure Markek Economic System How of money Money flows rmm households in businessasm pay or 141 Miller 2003 Flow 01 producis Househnlds Conventional Economics Money ows mm businesses In householdsrla pay mr labor and other pmduclion new or money Ecological Economics Figure 243 E unreal wva ct Nulum quotannual Hviiy 5010ng Jun Cw ll unsxs uu almcmonne an human subsystem mm unpand an AH me vcsnu m1 swcss wowed rand sum H m m mp sun and ma emu ml moan9431752 my W m A 39 7 mm vesoumes Acnnsumav socmly law quotval l l cameo v ccomwr gr mam wllsly u turrmpammg ms w mwms aswmns mm ow leuhnt ognczu and unon mommy w an 4 lo no 39Jl am 39mquot 1 sunsmmec m ovum ne any 5quot 39 WI 9 must an vcsunuzo and 2 ways x wmcquot kaeyu palmch arm nnv ranml nw quotM 39J 39 unmadunmv a cheplaDle levels To onmoqmal uCunUmxsh vch a sac my 5 unaunlamsulu m m m us demuan and ougvada nn nl mural zesmmes mum at wmcn have no Sllhsmules 142 Miller 2003 Ecological vs Conventional Economics 5 Chal eclerlshr mm wumm Hu vw mum y mum s u Pam u m im mu mu u Figure 24 Compansun of unsusmmabie economic growth and envii unsustainable Economic Growth Quantity No very Imports lnel ciem hlgh waste High Nunrenawable Matter discarded Cleanup oulpul raducuo Risk bene t analysis mnmental y SusKamable ecanomic developmentv Anthropocentnc Biocentric Ecocen tric Environmentally Sustainable Economic Development Quality Very imponam Ef cient low waste Low Renewable Matty recycled reused or composted Preve ion input I39educlio Pvevemion and precauuon meme 44 14 Evolution of rights monarchs white males all menquot humanity sentient beings nature 5mm ngnw r r Ijmmnu gamma Bonuses Callicott p 47 15 Burden Of PI OOf Responsibility precautionary principle SMS safe minimum standard Developers Conservationists 1 Instrumental 3 0f P 2 Intrinsic B of P 3 BC A B of P 4SMS Bofp 16 Plastic Trees in Los Angeles knowledge gt advocacy Perhaps our grandsons having never seen a wild river will never miss the chance to set a canoe in singing waters Leopolul7 Values Ethics Philosophy Rolston Essay p 35 in Callicott Chapter species vs species in the system definition of species value of evolutionary trajectory extinction and doors temporal and spatial scales Values Ethics Philosophy Ethics constrain selfserving behavior in deference to some other good Tragedy of the Commons Role of religions interpretation 19 Science Vol 162 Issue 3859 12431248 13 December 1968 The Tragedy of the Commons Garrett Hardin The tragedy of the commons develops in this way Picture a pasture open to all It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars poaching and disease keep the numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the land Finally however comes the day of reckoning that is the day when the longdesired goal of social stability becomes a reality At thispoint the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy As a rational being each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain Explicitly or implicitly more or less consciously he asks quotWhat is the utility to me of adding one more animal to my herd This utility has one negative and one positive component 1 The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal the positive utility is nearly1 2 The negative component is afunction ofthe additional overgrazing created by one more animal Since however the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen the negative utility for any particular decisionmaking herdsman is only a fraction of 1 Adding together the component partial utilities the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd And another and another But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons Therein is the tragedy Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limitin a world that is limited Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons Freedom in a commons bringszguin to all 10 JudeoChristian Tradition Intrinsic value by divine decree Noah saving species Islam No separation of church and state Unity Trusteeship Accountability Hinduism Core of all being is one reality Brahman Prakrti matrix of the material creation 21 Buddhism Limit use of resources Nirvana selfsurroundings Jainism Each living thing has a soul 6 Taoism The way of nature don t buck it 22 11 Iroquois consider the impact of their decisions on the seventh generation to come Chipko Hindu links The ultimate treehuggers Himalayas of India am am 4min WWW w cum JVamzrrv PM W Codn luau V wan 1 39l 3 lulu Table 33 senn Mninr nunun nnn snnnn limlmnumunl and l unscl mliun TYPE OF VA LUE MOTIVATION FDR CONSERVATION l Jullcmt39llrisliun sichIIlthp l llculclllnc Prune n39c Ill cwl Il k ll sy39slcrns lhlll lul Ilni Lumlllillldctl humans In are run as cxcnnplnncu lwy mu placing ur mn n in Ilu garden in quotwul k l5 llnnlnnssuonlu msrvul um um linslmy Urd 39 Ilulllljwnrt Dean ccnlugyuml rclalnl limocllln39c the n39 his nrinll39iunic valuc ullrihlllcd ln unnlluman nulum plw vulucxyslcms linliL lljuns nn lnnmn pmmgali s mum ul39 nllnrnnlnn and musl kt mspuml 3 139muslaunnllnnuli 5 nlllmrn7ntrlc I LL5mm un riluul value ulnnlunn nunun rlmvidm mlncz ln lnumtcll39lcnllllism considch lccml qumiuns and can IIIer lnnnnn lliclr nn 4 39ullslmillcd cannmncn Anlnmpmnric chuuru nw ix prlrnully a pmhlml ul39hunmncmnnnm llmnullc lvuitliny irrcrLniblcdllma H m um imlxmcnl i hcllcllcinl IIXI cn nimnmu unqu b p Mn alwhtn Illc ccnllumic ml in nnl tm yrclllt an risk mung nnnnuun scrim ml avoiding innunmann dum n lo I cnvlmnnmu am insunculluu s Scicnli c nalumlixm Sk39icnccc ulcml sunnuuc lllcnn ul cnnluunn ml ccnlugy mnnl ncvtsstln39 leils un ccutrlllril pupuuuun ymwlll uni Viulcucc lu lllc I ll Dyllumixm and tunicnu alism me vrnlIhniivtl L lamaminan Ml lmpm cnlric nanny mnn zluminuliml mcnlnlurc is nlbulic ul39hi dnnli lliun l39uninlun nm mum 1mm lug um mwimllmrlll nuns ln cum lmll cnvirm mnnlnl null xuziul pmhlcnls 7A I lumlismprupmulism An inlrumnllic l llilusupl lyl ulllmugh n can mm as n lml u sunn nnnnl ml lclns is nnl Cmle il l Rulher pr Iicnl lmlhlcm SE lVlll und Illicul plinciplcs nrc uxd ln nddms cxwilmlmclllnl isu nnn ll 1 lnwnnl n Vl39i39lr n M mm mm l mman hm 24 Van kae 2003 12 Personal Example Virtue Van Dyke p 75 25 quotConservation may be a sign of personal virtue but it is not a sufficient basis for a sound comprehensive energy policyquot Vice President R Cheney April 2001 26 13 Role of scale mmmmgumanmmmm 27 Five axion39s ofconsensus among environmentalists 1 Dynamism 2 Interrelateclness 3 Nested systems 4 Creative processes 5 Differential fragility Norma 1991 see van We p 72 22 14 18871948 Aldo Leopold Foundatioga Objectivity is only possible in matters too small to be important or in matters too large to do anything aboutquot p 226 Leopod 30 15 Leopold 777ining like a mountain a mountain lives in mortal fear of its deerquot Escudila progress It s only a mountain nowquot The planet will survive will we 31 a thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity stability and beauty of the biotic community It is wrong when it tends otherwise Aldo Leopold 32 16 Aldo Leopold Land Ethic and ethic enlarges the community to include biota processes evolutionaryecological biology scale of perturbation temporal spatial violence What is landhealth 33 Aldo Leopold Land Ethic and pyramid 17 Aldo Leopold Land Ethic socia evolution social disapproval for wrong actions human as plain member and citizen not ruler Conquerer self defeating because falsely thinks she understands how the system works and can control it 35 Leopold Property vs propriety Role of land in human history Diamond Guns Germs and Steel Sacrifice Obligation of private landowner Livestock Violence Economics 36 18 In our attempt to make consenation easy we have made trivial p246 Leopold 37 Whether you will or not You are a King Tristram for you are one Of the timetested few that leave the world When they are gone not the same place it was Mark what you leavequot As quoted in Leopold 1949 p 261 The Land Ethic 19 1 Should conservation biologists explain the value of biodiversity in purely instrumental terms or should they also include reasons invoking intrinsic value 2 How should we respond to the question of What good is it 3 How do we know that humans or anything have intrinsic value 39 20