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Chapter 1 and 2 Notes

by: Yousra Notetaker

Chapter 1 and 2 Notes Psy 321

Yousra Notetaker
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Child psychology
Dr. Heather Janisse

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About this Document

These are the notes for chapter 1 and 2. Our first quiz will be on these notes, it will be beneficial for you to study these notes.
Child psychology
Dr. Heather Janisse
Class Notes
child psych, developmental psych, Psychology, theories




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yousra Notetaker on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at Eastern Michigan University taught by Dr. Heather Janisse in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Child psychology in Psychlogy at Eastern Michigan University.

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Date Created: 01/25/16
Child Psych Chapter 1 01252016 Studying Child Development a Development is the study of change 0 We examine both commonalties in the way all people change and how people differ from one another 0 Examples from physical intellectual and personality domains Issues in Human Development 0 Nature or Nurture 0 Biological blueprint nature vs Environment nurtureHow genes react With environment to in uence changes in humans 0 Continuity or Discontinuity o Is development a smooth progression throughout the lifespan continuity or a series of abrupt shifts discontinuity Universal or Context speci c development o Is there just one path of development or several paths of development Biopsychosocial Framework 0 biological psychological and social forces forces interact 0 effects may differ at different points in the life cycle What drives development change 0 Internal maturational pattern genetically determined human plan External in uences ie the environment normative agegraded in uences normative history graded in uences o nonnormative events Contexts of Development Bronfenbrenner created his ecological systems theory to explain how their immediate and surrounding environment affects the way in which children grow and develop Bronfenbrenner Microsystem o where the immediate interactions of the child take place 0 includes both family and peers mesosystem 0 contains the interactions between two microsystems Having your friends or your peer microsystem attend a family gathering your family microsystem exosystem 0 environmental settings in which the child is not actively involved but that nonetheless have a signi cant in uence on the child 0 An example is if the child39s father was laid off from work macro system 0 Larger cultural context 0 It includes the political beliefs of the child39s culture Chronosystem o All experiences in lifetime Researchers should remember that in uence is bidirectional How Do We Study Development 0 Experiments 0 Nonexperimental methods rely upon correlations difficult to demonstrate causation 4 Method of Data Collection 0 Crosssectional cohort effect sampled groups along a developmental path in an experiment to determine how development in uences a research variable 0 Look at the research right now 0 Longitudinal sample of the population is studied at intervals to examine the effects of development 0 Sequential combination of longitudinal and crosssectional designs by folo Wing several differenty aged cohorts over time With longitudinal we look at one group over a long time o A Sequential Design a Time of Measurement Theory o A set of assumptions that help organize and make sense of the world Dimensions on which theories differ content endpoint continuous or stagelike development active or passive subject What is a good theory can be disproved 0 makes sense of existing data has clear concepts 0 can be operationalized explains how development occurs 0 leads to further research Theo es Psychoanalytic Freud and Erickson emotional and social development stagelike active subject 0 Evaluation of the Theory 0 can t be disproved not easily operationalized Learning Theory 0 Skinner focus on social and cognitive behaviors continuous development passive child reinforcement and punishment shaping Bandura more emphasis on active participation of child observational learning self efficacy Evaluation of Learning Theory 0 can be disproved 0 doesn t make sense of all data 0 easily operationalized 0 has lead to much research 0 doesn t explain the how of development Cognitive Developmental Theory Piaget focus on cognitive development stages that end at adolescence active child Evaluation disprovable currently not making sense of some data 0 can be operationalized has lead to much research 0 doesn t explain the how of development Information Processing 0 Kail noted in this eld 0 focus on cognitive development 0 continuous development 0 active child Evaluation disprovable makes sense of data 0 can be operationalized is leading to new research doesn t explain the how of development Ecological Bronfenbrenner applies to development in all domains emphasis on the context of development 0 micro meso exo macro emphasis on bidirectional development Evaluation 0 more an approach than a theory 0 very dif cult to implement but more studies taking these issues into account Ethology and Evolutionary Bowlby Concerned with the adaptive value of a behavior 0 Understanding the infantcaregiver relationship Biological and Environmental Foundanns Biological Genotype o What do we know to be inherited o temperament personality IQ physical traits and more 0 How can we tell whether something is inher ed twin studies monozygotic and dizygotic Genes and Environment Interact Range of reaction of gene 0 Canalization 0 Genes and environment are correlated same persons who provide genes provide environment passive person elicits environment evocative persons pick environments active Biological Foundations Plan for person carried in 23 pairs chromosomes made of DNA Base plan for person but variants allowed 2 copies of each gene alleles o alike homozygous 0 different heterozygous 0 Some characteristics single gene 0 others polygenetic Genetic Abnormalities 95 of all births perfectly normal 0 Genetic diseases 0 can test for some genetic diseases 0 amniocentesis o chorionic villi sampling 0 genetic counseling Maternal factors 0 Age Environment 0 The family 0 Poverty versus Af uence Neighborhoods and Schools Culture Public Policy


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