Class Note for NATS 101 at UA
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Scales of Motion I H H L E 7 1 The Scales nf Atmospnarlc Mutton w m me Pnennmena sAveraga S a and Llie Span39 T oa 505 s 5 4 qunax 5mm 325 s 74 Sy am sca e zmukm Huvricanss Trupica simms LandSS5 bvgszs Mesosca e 2mm MWE Z QZEHSV Thunda mrms Chinmkw md Tumadues Santaknewin 4 Watsysppms Dus dsWs SmaH Mmmsca e 2m Wbu sm sdd ss Semnds Mmmes Hams Days 5 4N7 m 447 malt7 m mmmes haw days a week 71 mars urs SPAN Ecuuxz Lh Mum m m zermimumm may mwm n h Enmns fa mm more Hun an angary 02005 17112an smmm Scales of Motion Microscale few meter scales short lived most prevalent in the atmospheric boundary layer friction layer Synoptic scale 1005 10005 kilometer scales days to week duration observed throughout the troposphere Mesoscale 1 1005 kilometer scales hours in duration observed throughout the troposphere Planetary global scale gt5000 kilometer scales gtmonth duration observed throughout the troposphere Eddies Eddy whirl of air produced by flow around an object or by wind shear exist on all scales httpeosweblaronasa govHPDOCS misrmisr htmllace swirlshtml e quot Apri3923 2 Example of eddy von Karman vortices formed from flow around island of Socorro Mexico Can you pick out Isla San Benedicto 4 39w 350 km Eddies Mountain waves and eddies form in stable air downwind of mountains can travel into the stratosphere Wave wave crest crest W WW W 4 4 r 5 QMountain Rotor Rotor 3 Wave eddy a 2m woman gtBrooksCoh Eddies KelvinHelmholtz waves formed from shear in wind in stable regions common nearjet stream or with mountain waves Shear boundary lt gt HE 39gt gt b a 3 Stable r 428 x K 2 layer xv 39 a Small b Increasing 2 Boundary cl Waves 9 Turbulent shear shear deforms appear eddies VERTICAL VIEW n anus Thnmsm Broomnle break Billow clouds form from Kelvin Helmholtz waves Eddies Wind shear wind changing its speed or direction abruptly Vertical speed shear Speed and directional shear The nngmal suume em image is the Cnugemuvf Fmgmmfm Image by Emm r Ogsmunnal Memumlugy Educaimnand Tmmgg ooMET at http Hum2mm atmns mue eduGh abialmwldvlp mm the Univeme Commaan furALmDspth Research Eddies Clearair turbulence CAT large eddies that form in clear air generally at high altitudes aircraft cruising altitudes Can be caused by Jet stream Fast highaltitude air current can shift disturbing air nearby Thermals warm rising air 39 7 near surface hip NW mmssngm cam ght smlymmmm shim Can also be caused by mountain waves wake turbulence small chaotic air currents from passing plane microbursts strong downdraft near surface from storm or passing aircraft Eddies Clear air turbulence CA T Unusual case December 1992 a DC8 cargo plane lost one engine and 6 m of a V l its wing in CAT NCAR has modeled the jet stream on this day to visualize and study the conditions causing the damage Images andmovie from httpWwwvetsucareduVgCATindexshtml Thermal Circulations lso banc su vfaces Thermal circulation b 4 circulation brought about by 3 changes in air temperature observed on all scales 1km Pk H ai L 70km Thermal Circulations Recall that pressure in warm columns decreases more slowly than in cold columns 1 Air flows from high to low pressure aloft 2 Surface pressure at warm column will decrease 3 Surface pressure at cold column will increase 4 Air will flow from high to low pressure at surface 10 Thermal Circulations Sea breeze onshore wind near surface strongest in the afternoon mesoscale phenomenon Land breeze offshore wind near surface strongest at night weaker than sea breezes mesoscale phenomenon m Land breeze onus mmmn ememr 11 Thermal Circulations Valley breeze upslope wind near surface strongest in the afternoon mesoscale phenomenon Valley Breeze Mountain breeze downslope wind near surface strongest at night mesoscale phenomenon Mountain Breeze 12 Thermal Circulations Strong wind Chinook Winds downslope 1zocgvghrm wind on the leeward side of 3 Heat added O 4 f 00 Moisture 39 39 gt 0 lost if grim Air warms on windward side as latent heat is released andmfmm moisture lost the Rockies warm and dry to Altitude km 18 C Snow eaters descending air is drier and warmer than air moving up slope on the windward side can melt 1 foot of snow in less than a day 13 Thermal Circulations Katabatic Winds strong downslope wind Cold air in the mountains descends through gaps in the cold hills faster descent if confined to narrow canyon or channel Examples Bora NE wind from Russia into former Yugoslavia Mistral wind from mountains in SE France into Rhone Valley Coho wind off the Columbia plateau down the Columbia River Gorge 14
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