Note 21 for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
Note 21 for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 21 01 November 2005 Global Climate Change Aquatic Conservation Conservation Biology ECOL 406R506R University of Arizona Fall 2005 Kevin Bonine Kathy Gerst Conservation Biolo 406 506R 1 Global Climate Change Research Example 2 Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystems Olan Dyke Chapter 9 39 r 9 Exam two returned on Thursday 2 There will be a seminar on Wednesday November 2 1pm in BSE 225 The presenter will be Dr William W Shaw School of Natural Resources University of Arizona His topic will be quotThe Santa Lucia Preserve Innovative Conservation of Nature for the Rich and Famousquot The Treasures within Unanticipated Uses of Biological Collections Lucinda McDade Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia PH Fatally awed storage system installed late 70s ost 0f herbarlum cabinets went to NYBG Why bother Specimens play major role in making systematics repeatable and thus an empirical science True whether floristics revisionary work higher level phylogenetics PH Fatally awed storage system installed late 70s ost 0f herbarlum cabinets went to NYBG Why bother Specimens play major role in making systematics repeatable and thus an empirical science True whether floristics revisionary work higher level phylogenetics Unanticipated uses of Museum Specimens not systematic biology not geographic distributions not conservation biology not identi cation these all vital but anticipated Unanticipated uses of Museum Specimens 1 Phenology 2 DNA almost conventional 3 Historical Environmental Conditions Amino Acid Enantiomers Leaf Stomatal Density Carbon Isotope Ratios Unan pated uses of Museum Specimens 3 Historical Environmental Conditions Leaf Stomatal Density Beerling and Chaloner1996 Annals of Botany Stomates on Surface ofLeaves Density of Stomates l withl atmospheric CO2 gt3000 years of Olive leaves Olea europea 1300 BC to present 11 Funeral Wreaths King Tut s Tomb Herbarium Kew quotE 800 E m a 500 id 5 E 0 ii I 1327 350 AD AD BC BC 1818 1978 Present Date Industrial Beerling and Chaloner 1993 ReVOhItiOH 12 Annals of Botany Unanticipated uses of Museum Specimens 3 Historical Environmental Conditions Carbon Isotope Ratios Black Guillemots Lon term study 1972present Geore Divoky Divoky s 25 year study shows Birds arrive at nesting site two weeks earlier now Laying eggs 10 days earlier Dale 7 Jul 30 Jun 23 Jun 16 Jun p Median egg 0 First 299 9 Jun 1970 1975 1980 1935 1990 1995 2000 2005 YEAR Results led to examination of causes cimate change Island snow free for 80 days only beginning in 705 Other ways birds might document climate change Because guillemots feed at edge of pack ice in winter Their bodies should reflect the location of that pack ice 17 Specifically More southerly seas more productive Translates to higher C13C12 ratio Therefore lf pack ice and birds reduced in southerly expansion over time Detectable in C13C12 in birds you are what you eat C13C12 should decrease with time where to nd really old birds Not just old but DA TED PH Bird Collection Second oldest and fifth largest in the US 613C in Black Guillemots 1 5 18982000 u i s i 339 n 6130 20 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 20 YEAR Supports hypothesis that birds feeding farther south 100 yrs ago Consistent with extends shorter term documentation of reduced extent of winter ice Also likely exacerbated by increase in atmospheric CO2 Burning fossil fuel adds C12gtC13 Divoky continuing project Latest Development Pack ice retreating farther to North in summer away from island 21 Unanticipated uses of Museum Specimens 3 Other Chemical Constituents Carbon Isotope Ratios PH has essentially all of Merriweather Lewis plant specimens Collected 18041806 Lewis amp Clark Expedition Remarkable series of events brought them to PH see web site 22 11 PH has essentially all Lewis amp Clark plant specimens ad 5 gt BMW gab46 jg man u Mark Teece studied C13C12 ratios in sample of LampC plants Leaffragmml remaved for biogeodwmical analysis Mark A Teece Geophysical Laboratory Carnegie Institution of Washington Removed 18 Dec 1997 Burning fossil fuels adds gtgtC12 12 Indeed C13C12 higher 200 years ago Obviously no direct measurements of atmospheric C13C12 data from 200 years ago Teece s results provide modern but prelndustrial Revolution baseline Extend record far back into time Confirm secular increase in C12 25 The Treasures within Unanticipated Uses of Biological Collections Lucinda McDade Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia 26 13 Aquatic Conservation VanDyke Chapter 9 Marine vs Freshwater de nition of limnology Fisheries Mariculture Hydrothermal Vents and other Benthic Examples Wetlands Eutrophication Ramsar Treaty other legislation IBI 27 Threats to marine environments Overfishing and overhunting Alteration of physical environment Pollution Introduction of non native species Global climate change 28 14 Impact of Fisheries 1940 s and 50 s 7 Fish stocks were seen as a renewable resource where management could lead to a continual maximum sustainable yield every year Today s outlook 7 70 of the world s marine stocks have been classi ed as heavily exploited over exploited or depleted 7 45 of all species are overharvested 29 Commercial Fisheries SY Destructive shing technigues Habitat destruction Dredgingtrawling Bycatch Driftnetsdredgingtrawling Proposed solutions Banning certain shing techniques drift netting Requiring the use of devices such as TED s Limiting the areatime of commercial engagement Marine Reserves 30 15 rum mum 1 11 n m me when Sorting catch and bycatch on a shrimpboat deck Georgia 1986 Shrimpers tow nets that collect shrimp and many other animals in their path Red snapper croaker mackerel sea trout spot drum and other shesup to nine times more than the shrimp catchare dumped overboard already dead or dying Satchell M 1992 U 5 News and World Report June 22 1992 Rapid worldwide decline of predator sh communities Myers RA amp B Worm Nature V 423 15May2003 What they concluded Only 10 of large predatory fish are left in the world s oceans 31 A shrimping crew culls the bycatch Gulf of Mexico Commercial marine sheries in the US alone toss away up to 20 billion pounds of bycatch each yeartwice the commercial and recreational catch combined BneldemeyerE cs ludicellcandH J Hanmann 1990 Discarded catch in U 5 commercial manne fisheries Audubon Wildlle Rep0n19891990 16 Tap of trawl net TED Codand i t g m Guided Funnel of Netting Turtle in the net 39 39r x amp of the TED seameq Jepnpxg 911ml 3 u Destruction of Habitats Trawling damage mm mm 4 m mm Coastal Pollution Oxvucn Wm M smmtm my my mum mauw w n H mm m up MW n mm mm Hummus Hqu W mm laclmzr rlllmsuhlhhulumhmnd Nmulw uqu l W i H mm mm W unwer mm Most destructive fishing method that is Widely used Endangers species that may not even be known yet 15 i charmquot m my mulln mm WWmmuwmm m w m mun M w Tm M m m algau are w WW m urmn l in 12723 mu m W am Mr W 18 Chesapeake Bay Oxygen Depletioln Gulf of Mexico 39 Dead Zone ATLANTIC OCEAN x VIRGINIA NW n Chesapeake Bay 1 Dramage N0 oxyge Low concemmuons basm of nxygen 1224 MIHEr 2cm nth Flgure 1429 Chesapeake Bay l ne IaI39gasz estuary III Ihe Umled States Is severer degraded as a resuu of water now ion I Iom poIm and nonpoinl sources In six states and from deposmon 039 5 pouman s http wwwbforgsxtePageServer7pagenamecbf 10mepage Gull 0 Mexmo Figure 1428 A Iarge zone of oxygenidepleted waIer forms for half ul me year im Ihe GuH 0 Memo as a result of oxygen depleung aIgal bloams It Is created by huge Inputs af nitrate ND and phosphate POW2 39 pIam nulrients fvom the mas SIve MISSISSIppI RIver BESIHI Wen mm mm 38 19 Oxygen Depletion c in cumim3n2m39 sew 2m ctamv m c m m A A A A Wash m mm m lcccqu am mm mngt Wash llsh Nnvmal Clean wi munawm Cam nan mm mm Imus mum lawns maylly xawln annmbhic mam lnan N WWW Man39culture A part of the solution Bene ts efficient and effective reduced need to disturb natural systems perhaps more sustainable Concerns Many of the same problems associated with terrestrial agriculture e g concentrated pollution and disturbance Increased supply could mean increased demand Pearl and oyster farming has been successful for centuries Loss of Wild populations of cultural amp historical imp ortanc e 4U 20 Examples Fish production 7 Salmon 7 Tilapia aquatic chicken Oysters Giant Clam Salmon A Case Study Change chemistry of water Escape into Wild populations 7 Compete with Wild populations and Win 7 Contaminate gene pool J Amm fm39m m unk owm 41 42 21 Giant Clams a mariculture example Includes nine species of marine clarns often found on coral reefs Heavily exploited Large size means high demand as food Early life stages egg larval juvenile are raised in outdoor tanks eventually moved into containers in the ocean Large adults are then grown in the open sea No apparent environmental harm increased fish diversity around clarn colonies Efforts to include locals in mariculture helps to avoid 43 poaching of Wild clarns Giant Clam A Case Study 0 Syrnbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae 0 No deleterious environmental effects 0 Big Success gt Increased Demand gt Exploitation of Wild Population gt Ban on International Trade 22 Marine Protected Areas MPA World Conservation Union quotany area of the intertidal or subtidal terrain together with its overlying water and associated ora fauna historical and cultural features which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environmentquot 45 Objectives Increase biodiversity To protect a representative sample of some or all of the habitats found within a region To reduce or prevent impacts from shing including population decline ecological impacts and habitat destruction Establish undisturbed areas as control or reference sites for scienti c research and shery assessment Prevent marine pollution by prohibiting industrial activities like oil drilling and mining Protect culturally important seascapes sites and artifacts 46 23 Protected Marine Areas in the world Benthic Communities and Hydrothermal Vents Modi ed from Bob Seaman Laura Marshall Dan Post Nicole Hallmark ECOL 406506 2004 24 First one discovered east of the Galapagos in 1977 49 Sea oar spreading MidAdamic Ridge Press and Siaver Understanding Ear 39n Freeman 1998 SH 25 Seawater at 2 C Sub Sea aox Microth Bios her Aamma mm MnA A v n Hydrothermal Life chemosynthesis instead of photosynthesis Bacteria primary producers synthesize sugars from chemoautotrophy 52 26 Hydrothermal Life and Conservation Areas of High Biodiversity 39 Giant Worms Clams and Crabs live off Archaea chemosynthesis Possible metapopulation Habitat for relict species less affected by extinction events stable habitat Potential impacts mining energy conversion 5 Benthic Community 39 Ocean Floor lulcuidzll ii 4 Commcnml um 24an E won 7393 n 4000 Abyssal hulluc 3mm munquot so 27 Benthic Ecosystem Nutiient cycling Marine Snow Estimates of marine benthic species 500k 7 10million Habitats Sea grass breeding grounds gtgt Extreme environments high biodiversity 28
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