Behavioral Neuro notes from lectures 1 and 2
Behavioral Neuro notes from lectures 1 and 2 NSC 3361
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachael Couch on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NSC 3361 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Van S Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience in Neuroscience at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Lectures l and 2 Neuron and brain anatomy Research on the brain and behavior began in antiquity 0 Aristotle thought the heart was the seat of mental capacities and that the brain s job was to cool the blood 0 Hippocrates wrote of the brain as the seat of thoughts and emotions 0 Galen first neurologist reported behavioral changes in brain injured gladiators 0 4000 BC first neuroscience euphoriant effect of poppy reported in Sumeria Phrenology 0 Phrenology studying where different feelings come from in the brain 0 Old phrenology O In the 19th century phrenology assigned separate functions to cortical areas 0 Bumps on the skull were thought to overlie enlarged brain regions which were matched to behaviorsskillspersonality 0 New phrenology still in practice of assigning brain function to brain parts Preview of various topics 0 Dementia front brain shriveled walnut brain 0 Cells dying rapidly deterioration of the brain 0 Brain development 0 Newborn baby died body yellow and brain was colored slightly yellow 0 High jaundice level turns the brain yellow as well 0 Kernicterus very rare type of brain damage that occurs in a newborn with severe jaundice 0 Genetic brain disorders 0 Chromosome 15 abnormality Angelman syndrome microcephaly small head because small brain 0 Multiple sclerosis 0 White parts on scan are abnormalities autoimmune attack against the brain 0 Movement 0 Polio shriveledshort right leg not common anymore because of the vaccine Neuron Doctrine 0 Origin of modern neuroscience 0 The brain is composed of independent cells 0 Signals are transmitted from cell to cell across gaps synapses 0 Proposed by Santiago Ramon y Cajal 0 Used Golgi s cell staining method to observe neurons Neuron anatomy Dendrites Myeilliunl sheath Terminals Muscle 39 iberv 39 Gem body I Neurons have direction they re polarized O Directionality allows them to conduct electricity 0 Dendrites receive information 0 Have dendritic spines little bumps I Dendritic spines increase surface area I Have neural plasticity number and structure are altered by experience I Can change over time learning is a physical change in the brain I Can be built in about half an hour rapid construction 0 Brain has everything at hand needed to build the spine I Neural plasticity the process of building and removing dendritic spines I The brain is the only organ that has the ability to change and the immune system nothing else has plasticity 0 Cell body soma the largest part of a neuron which contains the cell s nucleus cytoplasm and structures that produce proteins convert nutrient into energy and eliminates waste powers everything I Axon cable that connects the cell body to the terminal carries information to other locations 0 Myelin not part of the neuron fat wrapped around the neuron acts as an insulator can be removed some neurons most in the CNS do not have myelin Soma cell body I Nucleus 0 Rough ER arrays of membranes with ribosomes 0 Site of protein synthesis for membrane associated proteins 0 Smooth ER regulates cytoplasm I Golgi apparatus stacks of at membrane compartments 0 Packages products for shipment in cell 0 Neuron membrane lipid bilayer cell membrane 0 Keeps stuff together separates the inside from the outside I Inside and outside the cell have different charges charge separator does NOT power the cell or contain microtubules 0 Ion channels restricted ow inside and out way to use the charge 0 Intrinsic Proteins receptors ion channels give neurons the necessary properties for signaling 0 Cytoskeleton network of fibers throughout the cytoplasm O Microtubules 20nm tubes spirals of tubulin I Tracks for movement within neuron railroad track axoplasmic transport 0 Anterograde transport material is moved from soma to terminals along microtubules using kinesin as the enabling protein 0 Most common transport because proteins made in soma 0 Retrograde transport material is moved from terminals to soma using dynein as the enabling protein I Implicated in Alzheimer s I Lissencephaly microtubules unstable and fall apart unable to transport proteins 0 Severe pachygyria 0 Lissencephaly smooth brain because gyra don t form 0 Die at young age 0 Neurofilaments lOnm twisted cables I Static support structures support columns 0 Microfilaments 5nm double heliX of actin I Dynamic structures move things around I Associated with cell membrane 0 Mitochondria O MELAS syndrome Mitochondrial Encephalopathy Lactic Acidosis and Stroke I Mitochondrial energy failure mitochondria don t function properly I In any terms of stress small fever cold the mitochondria can t function they re already working really hard to keep up Neuron size 0 Bigger neuron bigger metabolic ability 0 Larger neurons have more compleX inputs and outputs cover greater distances and convey information more rapidly Three kinds of neurons by structure 0 Unipolar neurons 0 A single extension that branches in two directions forming a receptive pole and an output zone 0 Info travels through axon at line 0 Doesn t travel through cell body 0 Fastest important in situations where speed is important I Ex sensory neurons when body is in pain injury need fastest response 0 Bipolar neurons 0 One axon one dendrite 0 Usually sensory O In vision restricted utility not often used 0 Multipolar neurons 0 One axon many dendrites Most common type Branches are connections to other neurons Important when it s a multi person job Very slow but allows teamwork multiple in uences 10000 0 In the brain 0 Most neurons are unipolar CNS or multipolar brain rarely bipolar O O O O 3 kinds of neurons by function 0 Sensory neurons respond to environment such as light odor or touch 0 Motoneurons motor neurons contact muscles or glands 0 Can activate glands ex release of adrenaline 0 Work in more than just movement 0 Interneurons brain receive input from and send input to other neurons integration 0 Most neurons in CNS are interneurons All neurons have 4 functional zones Input zone dendrites 0 Receiving zone 0 Neurons collect and integrate information from the environment or other cells Integration zone axon hillock 0 Voting region 0 The decision to produce a neural signal is made 0 Ex in multipolar you have 5000 that say fire 4999 that say don t I neuron fires signal Conduction zone axon 0 Where information can be transmitted over great distances Output zone axon terminals 0 Neuron talks to other areascells spinal cord to brain Synapses 0 Synapse connection between 2 neurons 0 Presynaptic before the synapse 0 Post synaptic receiver of information 0 Information travels from pre to post synaptic neuron Glial cells 0 Motherscaretakers of neurons support the brain 0 NOT neurons do not fire impulses 0 Astrocytes 0 Most numerous glial cell in brain 0 Fill spaces between neurons for support I Neurons are separated by a small space neuron doctrine which allows room for things to move around because the brain isn t always stable hit shaking jumping I Astrocytes keep things from moving around too much keeps things in place 0 Regulate composition of the extracellular space I Control the environment I Hangover caused my too much potassium around the neuron O Astrocytes touch the neuron and the capillary I Serves as an intermediary between the two I BUT they don t feed the neuron 0 Oligodendrocytes 0 Make myelin 0 Wrap axons with myelin sheaths inside brain and spinal cord I 10 or 15 layers of myelin around each axon 0 Each oligodendrocyte wraps several axons I Multiplier effect If an oligo gets killed then 2 or 3 axons die 0 Forms segments of myelin sheath nodes of Ranvier are segments where the axon membrane is exposed I No myelin where the outside of the cell can talk to the inside of the cell without this gap there would be no conduction of electricity 0 Myelin deteriorates over time have to continually wrap it to keep them healthy 0 Ependymal cells 0 Line ventricles secrete make and absorb cerebral spinal uid 0 Only really important before you re born help brain development 0 Microglia O Phagocytes eat cells that clean up debris from dying neurons and glia I Ex clean up the mess after MS attack 0 Not from the brain from the body make their way into the brain to clean stuff up Glial Cell ProblemsDisorders 0 Multiple Sclerosis oligodendrocyte injury from autoimmune attack 0 Nervous system is particularly prone to autoimmune attacks 0 White area is where myelin has been attacked by the immune system in random white matter areas I Each area heals 90 not fully but then within a few months another attack will occur I progressive disease 0 Glial cell disease that effects how neurons work 0 Treating MS shut down immune system causes other potential problems 0 Microglial cells and monocytes acquire the virus in an attempt to get rid of it 0 In the process they become activated 0 Brain damage occurs from neurotoxins glutamate and NO nitric oxide produced by viral activated micro glia O Microglia come in and kill neuron which kills the virus but causes damage because it killed the neuron but if it doesn t kill the neuron then you ll die from the virus The autonomic nervous system 0 Autonomic automatic not under voluntary control 0 Not part of the brain part of peripheral 0 Sympathetic activation prepares the body for action 0 Chronic pain and stress are linked because they both involve sympathetic nervous system 0 Gets the body ready to fight active when mad scared etc 0 When mellow the parasympathetic nervous system is active 0 Parasympathetic activation rests and digests 0 Active when mellow Brain pulsation 0 Brain normally pulses because of blood ow 0 Blood does not ow like a river it ows in pulses heartbeats 0 If someone s brain is exposed but is pulsing he can be treated 0 If the brain is not pulsing even though the heart is beating then don t waste your time treating them they re not treatable still true because the brain pressure is too high Types of tissue in the brain 0 White matter composed of axon bundles 0 White because myelin sheaths white fatty tissue cover the axons O A bunch of cables 0 In MS you would expect white matter to be affected 0 White matter tracts axons connect brain areas I Short and long distance connections I Connect parts of the brain to each other and the brain to the spinal cord I U fiber connects neighboring parts of the brain 0 Gray matter composed of clusters of cell bodies have dark gray appearance Areas of the brain Four cortical lobes 0 Temporal by temples I Named brain section off the bone sections that they lie under 0 Occipital lobe under occipital bone etc Parts of the brain 0 Basal ganglia control of movement 0 Bunch of neurons 0 At center of brain oldest part of the brain 0 Geometric center of the brain is the thalamus basal ganglia is around the thalamus I Thalamus sensory relay 0 Limbic system emotional memory regulation 0 On top of basal ganglia O Emotional control of movement I How to respond when you re madsad etc 0 Emotions that effect movement control limbic system processes emotion and sends signal to basal ganglia to make you have a facial response I Cortex outermost layer 0 Has 6 distinct layers old cortex only had 3ish 0 Cells in different layers have different functions 0 Pachygyria I Pachy thick gyria gyrus a fold of the brain I Brain only has 3 layers I Child with pachygyria died in infancy I If the child had survived severe mental retardation I Thick 211d layer below cortical layers white matter 0 Brain stem automatic region keeps you breathing when you sleep etc 0 Midbrain keeps you awake I Power button for the brain I Includes reticular formation 0 Sleep and arousal temperature and motor control I Coma problemdamage to reticular formation 0 Pons contains motor and sensory nuclei to face 0 Medulla heart rate breathing I Transition of brain to spinal cord 0 Cerebellum movement motor coordination and learning quot a 1 J5 1 m Liam H mm a EM 3 Mlidsagilllal View Thalamus Fornix Pineal gland Superior colliculus llnferior coilliculus Pituitary Midlbrain forumIII um Pons bl Limbiic system Cingulme Caudatenucleus 39 Th l mus Pulamen Globus pallid us Olfactory lateral p arl l bulb Septall Globvus pallidus 7 t t nuclei medial part N N J Amygdala I Mammillary Lentiform Subthalamic T Sub l nm body nucleus nucleus in igm HiF P39x amP us Dura mater Subdural 7 space Araclhlnloiid membrane Subarachnoid space Piia matter Artery Braiirl 39 Meninges 0 Brain protection 0 Dura mater hard outermost layer 0 Subdural space 0 Rupture of vessel in subdural space subdural hematoma 0 Blood can continue to compress brain and cause an increase in blood pressure in the brain can be fatal 0 Arachnoid membrane 0 Subarachnoid space 0 Blood vessels 0 Filled with CSF 0 Pia mater soft thin closest to brain CSF Cerebral ventricles 0 Ependymal cells in the third and lateral ventricles make CSF cerebrospinal uid 0 CSF surrounds and cushions the brain 0 Make a pint of CSF every day 0 Ventricles are empty spaces filled only with CSF Circulation 0 After production ows through cerebral aqueduct O Cerebral aqueduct 2mm channel water channel I Made of brain tissue changes shape every time the brain pulsates 0 Exits brain at medulla 0 Now outside of the brain the brain is oating in CSF liquid cushion 0 Absorbed into blood system 0 Goes into blood vessels and now can eXit the skull 0 Hydrocephalus failure in CSF circulation O Cerebral aqueduct not large enough possibly 15mm instead of 2mm 0 Increased pressure in the brain head eXpanding to compensate 0 To treat make a hole to drain the CSF through a straw VP shunt Neuroimaging Views 0 Horizontal top view looking down 0 Saggital midsagittal side view 0 Coronal Front view head on view 0 Looks like a crown or butter y Horizontal Wipilane F Sagittal plane 39 Coronal plane 0 Medial toward the middle lateral toward the side Ipsilateral same side contralateral opposite side Anterior head end posterior tail end Proximal near center distal toward periphery Dorsal toward the back ventral toward the belly To describe the ow of neural information 0 Afferent carries impulses into a region of interest sensory I Being affected receiving input 0 Efferent carries impulses away from a region of interest motor I Causing an effect causing output Computerized aXial tomography CT X ray absorption shows tissue density The denser the tissue the whiter the image CT is just X ray White bone most dense Black CSF uid least dense Intermediate brain tissue Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI Process 0 Strong magnets cause protons in brain tissue to line up parallel O A pulse of radio waves knocks protons over 0 Protons reconfigure emitting radio waves that differ by tissue density Measures the water content Black bone no water molecules Outside white scalp White outside brain bone marrow white streak arrow Positron emission tomography PET Images of brain activity functional CT Uses radioactive chemicals injected into the bloodstream and maps their destination by their emissions Identifies which brain regions contribute to specific functions Not as useful Radioactive eXpensive Measure cerebral metabolism not just structural like CT and MRI Patient with Alzheimer s less activity dead neurons MRI very fine spatial resolution PET not as great resolution Functional MRI fMRI Most useful 0 detects changes in brain metabolism like oxygen use in active brain areas 0 fMRI can show how networks of brain structures collaborate 0 fMRI of blind person reading braille 0 Visual cortex lights up in blind person not a visual task something about language reading is not just a visual task they re picturing it in their head 0 Different in someone who is born blind lights up and someone who is not can picture things Case MELAS 0 14 yo Vietnamese girl at school had a seizure and on arrival in ER could not move her right arm or see to her left 0 Could not move right arm left brain dysfunction 0 On exam she was quite short and thin and hard of hearing 0 A month later she was back in ER this time unable to move her left arm and her hearing was worse 0 Brain MRI shows stroke on the right side of her brain 0 MELAS mitochondrial dysfunction Case Astrocytoma 0 36 year old engineer at T1 developed incoordination of his left arm and tendency to fall to his left along with headaches 0 Brain MRI showed white mass at the base of the brain astrocytoma O Astrocytoma tumor from proliferation of astrocytes 0 If left untreated he would have died because it s pressing the brain stem 0 Astrocytoma most common brain tumor in children Case Rolf 0 15 month old boy admitted for continual screaming vomiting and enlarging head 0 Head growing too rapidly because of hydrocephalus skull growing to compensate from increasing uid 0 He continued to deteriorate and died 3 weeks later 0 Alexander s disease astrocytes fill up with GFAP glial fibrillary acidic protein then fail O Untreatable disorder astrocytes swell up and block the ow of spinal uid in the brain and causes death 0 White shown on MRI diffused abnormality of the astrocytes Case Alex 0 Our little boy was a good baby he hardly ever cried When he was a few weeks old the doctor found cataracts When our son was about four months old the doctors became concerned about his development He is now severely retarded Lowe syndrome defect in Golgi body proteins not transported brain building proteins not delivered and therefore not used Metabolic diseases can cause cataracts before birth Cataracts before birth disrupted visual corteX formation
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