Class Note for ECOL 482 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 9 Origin of Actinopterygii ray nned fishes Late Silurian Early Devonian 400 mya Monophyly of large assemblage gt 23000 species 7 We accept monophyly but interrelationships less Well established Many con ising attempts to comprehendclassify lower Actinopterygian shes But if only living members relationships are with few exceptions reasonably Well established Actinopterygii ACUNOFIERVGII Aupensedrumes Newman sminmi Wm warm Zi mlm Historical Context Agassiz 183344 compendium fossil sh amp Muller39s 1845 classi cation 1iving actinopterygians 3 major assemb1ages chondrostei sturgeonpaddle sh Ho1ostei GarsAmi a Tel eostei Basic divisions ofActinopterygian moreor1ess accepted unti1 phy1ogenetic systematics in 1ate 196039s One of most in uential pub1ications quotInterrelationships of shes 1973 Mo1ded contemporary views of Actinopterygian interre1ationships by Greenwood P H Miles 5 Patterson c eds J Linn Soc London 53 Supplement 1 Academic Press New York New York Louis Agassiz I have devoted my who1e life to the study ofNature andyet a sing1e sentence may express an that 1 have done 1 have shown that there is a correspondence between the succession of Fishes in geo1ogica1 times and the different stages oftheir growth in the egg that is an 1t chancedto be a result that was foundto app1y to other groups and has 1ed to other conc1usions of a like nature Louis Agassiz 1869 Problems associated with poorly preserved fossil taxa Basw lly 5662133531 acunopteryglans 1 CheerICPls Schaeffer s on Chondrostean interrelationships Concluded f05511PaleonlSCIfOFmeSl 2 Cladlsnaa 3 many of old groups 7 chondrostei were paraphyletic but ChondroSteanSA01Penser1f0rmes a 4 Neopteryglans unable to do much more 12 Most taxa represented are fossil 7 2 polypterids living Gardineramp Schaeffer reanalyzed major lower 3 Chondrosteans 7 2 living groups Aetlnopteryglan f quotInterrelationShiPS 0f lower 3a Acipenseridae sturgeons 25 recent species Acnnopteryglan fISheSquot 1989 Z J Lmn 500 973135187 Specialized bottomfeeders bony scutes retain three heavy layers ganoine Heavily over fished Mammoth work array of fossils previously grouped in 3b Polyodontidae paddlefishes two recent species various quotchondrosteans and paleoniscids Palyadan spalhula Mississippi River and Psephurus gladius Yangtze River China Highly modified planktiv ores Bichirs Ch eirolepis MiddleDevonian 39s to 385 CladiStia 7 Polypterus mya to Late Devonian 335 to b i oh i m 359 mya Represented by 10 FW species tropical Africa and one species Description Possiny earliest EVPEIOIChl hyS actlnopteryglan with quotstandardquot calabaricus 7 reed sh dennai skull bones large orbit Rope f1sh Phylogeny Acdnopterygians 1 Cheirolepis fossil Paleonisciformes 2 Cladistia 3 Chondrosteans 4 Neopterygians long 50 cm body broadbased pelvic n ns other than pelvic n long strongly heterocercal tail fringing scales small or absent minute scales with two ganoine probably same as enamel layers Highly aberrant Cladistia numerous uniquely derived features 7 long independent evolution 7 Strange dorsal nlets 7 Series spiracular ossicles 7 Peculiar urohyal bone and parasphenoid But retain primitive Actinopterygian features 7 heavy ganoid scales external layer of ganoine 7 gular plates 7 spiral valve in the intestine lunglike swim bladder Regardless of Cladistia major problems in numerous fossil forms will not go into Sturgeons Order Acipenseriforrnes Family Atipenseridae 30 speties 5 rows bony plates on body Caviar and isinglass from swimbladder Extremely threatened dams pollution silt amp over shing Paddle sh Order Acipenseriformes 2 living species Polyodon spathula and Psephurus gladius Elongate snouts sensory not dig 7 eats zooplankton and phytoplankton Extremely threatened dams pollution silt amp over shing D Neopteryii Current views again vary present that in Lauder and Liem Gars Amia and teleosts Three major groups 1 Ginglymodi gars Lepisosteidae 7 2 genera and 7 spy 2 Halecostomi halecomorphi several fossils and amia bow n 7 traditionally Holostei 3 Teleostei subject of much of rest diversity survey 7 20000 species Old group quotholosteiquot is clearly broken up in this view and we have Amia and teleosts Gars Order Lepisosteifonnes Family Lepisosteidae Gars Order Lepisosteiformes 2 Family and 7 species living Hard enameled scales ofganoin Ambush predators Bow n Order Amiiformes Bowfln Family Amiidae 1 Living rAmza cava Temperate eastern North America Scales cycloid e dorsal fin entire length Up to 40 inches and 85 lbs mum Actinopterygii ACtINDPYERVOH AWVHIWWIS newlewnn NEXT Evolution ofpaiticular function in Actinopterygian fishes in context ofhistorical sequence of structural changes within clade Function feeding specifically the elaboration of inertial suction feeding mechanisms Remember aquatic medium 800 x dense and 80 x viscous than air Also oxygen less temperature stable hydrate buoyancy viscosity more drag Food acquisition on land very different than water Also explore possible implications ofvery fundamental differences in aquatic versus terrestrial feeding modes on trophic ecology of vertebrates
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