Chapter 1 Pre- History
Chapter 1 Pre- History HIST 1110
University of Memphis
Popular in World Civilization I Honors
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
Bryce Balistreri MD
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1110 at University of Memphis taught by ramsey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see World Civilization I Honors in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Chapter 1 Pre History and the rise of complex society Four Types of Society huntergathering 39 small agricultural village nomadicpastoral complex societies or civilization urban centers 3500 500 BCE KEY ISSUE amount of surplus produced l Three Social Classes ruling elite warriors and priests commoners peasants aneans merchants slaves debt payment criminals war captives How do we define PreHistory and History writing language events communication religion mythology scriptures What doe we mean by intelligence in the case of prehistoric humans oral traditions passed down communication language tools Hominids Early Humans animals only adapt to the environment humans including Hominids adapt environments to their needs use an production of tools language oral then written complex cooperative social organization capable of reproduction Australopithecus Southern Ape discovery of skeleton named Lucy in Ethiopia north of Addis Ababa height 4 6 weight 55 pounds brain size 500cc modern human l400cc limited speech bipedal posable thumbs use of tools died 35 million years ago Later Hominids Homo Erectus Upright llan larger brain iOOOcc improved use of tools use of fire Homo Sapiens Wise Man Homo Sapiens Sapiens Very Wise Man modern man largest brain primarily frontal lobe By 1300 BCE Homo Sapiens are in every inhabitable part of the globe Archeological tools 39 choppers scrapers axes knives bows arrows cave and hut like abodes hunted animals to extinction What do we mean by Paleolithic Society use of the environment nomadic huntergatherer old stone What are its characteristics Do these societies still exist crude some exist in South America Paleolithic Era Old Stone Age characterized by evidence of living conditions archeological discoveries observations of modern huntergatherer societies nomadic lifestyles produce advanced civilization sedentary lifestyle groups of 30 50 people division of labor only along gender lines no classes no property Social Equality nomadic culture prevents accumulation of wealth based on land earliest for of property determining factors of status gender age hunting skill size of family charisma gender divide determined largely by food production men protein from hunting womenchildren rest of diet from plant gathering Hunting evidence of coordinating hunting expeditions developed weaponry use of animal disguises stampeding lighting fires kill zones requires communicating planning patience timing and bravery Examples of Settlements Nartufan Society located in modern Israel and Jordan wild wheat and herding of animals Jomon Society located in modern Japan buckwheat and fishing Neandenhal 200000 to 35000 years ago in the Neander Valley in Western Germany also discovered in Africa and East Asia evidence of sense of death ritual burial evolution of social mores morality around twin taboos and social sexual norms CroMagnon physically alike to modern humans greater ability for speech designated Homo Sapiens Sapiens more variety of tools evidence of decorative furniture Venus figurines cave paintings in northeastern Spain southwestern France Neolithic New Stone Age fundamental distinction of stone production chipped v polished obsidian men herding animals alongside hunting women cultivating vegetation alongside foraging birth of agriculture slash and burn methods leaching of solidness to periodic migration spread of crops from one area to another Food Supplies and Labor Specialization emergence of villages and towns granaries silos discovery of community at Qatal HUyuk Turkey occupied between 7250 5400 BCE large range of manufactured goods pottery jewelry textiles copper tools indicating development of craft production Social Status accumulation of wealth of wealth in form of land and water rights stimulates growth of social classes archeological evidence of variety of household wares and decoration most buried with deceased members of community at Qatal HUyuk Religious Consciousness natural environment central to its ideology and functioning rituals archeological evidence of religious worship numerous clay figurines drawings on poetry and tools other ritual objects local fertility Venus figurines and seasonal rites birthdeath key to archaic forms of religion pre classical Origins of Urban Society Jericho concentration of wealth construction of a wall craft specialization social stratification government council of elderspriests later kings warriors armyamppolice cultural workers priests temple prostitues scribes legal officials physicians merchants
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