EduPsych 310 Week 1 Notes
EduPsych 310 Week 1 Notes PSY 310
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma George on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 310 at Western Kentucky University taught by Sharon A. Blevins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
January 26 2016 Cluster 1 Learning Teaching and Educational Psychology Students Today Great deal of student have disabilities learning physical etc 9 Teachers refer them and that is how they get diagnosed Low Socioeconomic Status SES o Children less prepared for school 9 Very difficult schools to work in Minorities are not represented as educators as they should be 9 A great deal of educators are Caucasian Wealth schools tend to have wealthy and educated parents 0 Parents will have a high standard of the school and their educators These schools are a different kind of difficult For educated children teachers must be on their A game In all of the diversity in a classroom technological literacy is something most children have in common o More technologically literate than teachers 9 9 No Child Left Behind NCLB Does not tell teachers how or what to teach because it follows common sense but because the research has been proven What we had before o Punitive system that came from the Bush era 9 Reading and Math grades 3 8 annual standardized achievement tests 9 Less testing in science o Student s Adequate Yearly Progress AYP 1 The fundamental way schools were judged 1 Not meeting this meant schools got sanctioned and punished g Where Teaching to the Test stems from 1 Teachers success was based solely on test scores and students improvement 9 2013 2014 school was a deadline where schools had to prove that all of their students knew everything 1 Students must reach proficiency by this deadline Blueprint to Reform NCLB policies Making students college OR career ready Students need to know that college is not the only option to have a successful and profitable life January 26 2016 Incentives for schools that met goals INSTEAD of punishments and sanctions for school that do not meet goals IMPORTANT How Teachers Can Make a Difference Relationship and Knowledge is key to impacting children s lives In order to motivate and teach a child you must first establish a relationship with them If students have a higher quality of teacherstudent relationships than their academic and behavior can be predicted up until grade 8 Students have better behavior if teachers are more sensitive to their needs and provide constructive consistent feedback 5 years of a bad teacher can have devastating effects that people may never overcome g Ineffective teachers create ineffective students Struggling students need more sensitive teachers and more individual attention and time Q Ineffective teachers are leg sensitive to struggling students and spend time with them Bad strategy Group punishment 9 One child misbehaves and the whole classgroup gets punished 1 This only causes social strain on struggling students It prevents them from making important social connections and limits their activities in the classroom o Sarcasm Do NOT use Children from different backgrounds take sarcasm in different ways Can get educators into trouble Good strategy Regular Classroom Time o If a special needs student can tolerate regular classrooms then they should be exposed as much as possible 1 This allows the student to be exposed to more material A special education teacher can only cover so much of one subject in their classroom Allowing capable special needs students to be in general classrooms lets those students learn more specialized material Models of Good Teaching Charlotte Danielson g Recognizes 22 knowledgeskill bases components of responsibility teachers should recognize 1 1 Planning and Preparation January 26 2016 Q Q 2 Classroom environment 3lnstruction 4 Professional Manners TeachingWorks national project at University of Michigan Recognizes 19 highleverage teaching practices and actions Gates Foundation project Measures of Effective Teaching 1 Classroom Observation 3 A principle sits in on a lesson and evaluates the teacher bases on state standards State Tests g The classic way of measuring a teacher s success Surveys of Students Perceptions of Teachers g Brand New 0 Makes relationship with students all more important g Teacher success is not solely based on academic scores For Beginning Teachers 9 Q I lo 9 Q 9 Sense of self efficacy How capable a teacher believes they are to reach difficult or struggling students Most important thing as a teacher A High Sense of self efficacy has many benefits Usually the higher sense of self efficacy the more students success Teachers work harder and with more determination for difficult students Lower burnout rate School with higher expectations for students tend to have higher support levels for teachers Student teaching can only prepare teachers for so much Therefore first time teachers will experience a reality shock Q OIOIO Q Q Motivating students classroom discipline and accommodating differences are things a first year teacher should focus on With experience these things will become second nature Ask How am I doing Beginning years require more hours of preparation Exp erienced Teachers shift the focus from themselves to their students needs Ask How are the children doing Startjudging success on their students success Educational Psychology Today 0 Focuses research on learning and teaching January 26 2016 o Improves educational policy and practice 0 Takes what seems sensible and puts it to the test 0 But does not always support the common sense practice 0 Distinct discipline 0 Distinct theories techniques solutions to problems and research methods 0 Applies some methods of psychology Methods to Understand and Improve LearningTeaching 0 Correlation studies 0 Researches how closely two variables are related 0 Positive Correlation Variables increase or decrease with each other 0 Negative Correlation Variables interact opposite of eachother A arrow increases B arrow decreases man a if R 53quot I a B arrow increases A arrow decreases 1 t f o Tells us what to predict not what causes the other 0 The scale for correlation studies 1 to 1 o The closer to 1 a correlation is the more positive of a relationship it has 0 The closer to 1 a correlation is the more negative of a relationship it has No correlation will ever be 1 or 1 Examples 3 vs 65 o 65 is a stronger correlation 0 Descriptive studies 0 Using surveys interviews list etc to collect information about a subject or situation 0 Often use correlations studies to help them understand the relationship Experimental Studies g Study cause and effect g Correlations do Not look at cause and effect g Single Subject Design 9 Effects of teaching methods or therapy or other interventions One variable is changed for group A but not group B 9 Huge jumps in statistics are not likely to occur by chance indicating causeeffect relationship Comparative results IO IO causeeffect relationship Proves that something is not likely to occur by accidentchange proving January 26 2016 g Manipulated variables and their effects o QuasiExperimental studies 1 Using groups of people that existed before research began g Classrooms schools churches etc o Random 1 Random people grouped randomly Participants subjects 1 Studying people IO Types of Studies g Jean Piaget o Pioneered Clinical Interview 1 Interviewer uses open ended questions to get a variety of responses from interviewee Interviewer then tailors interview to their answers 1 Still study Piaget today Investigation of one person or situation 9 Case Studies 1 Example Interviewing family to see if they are aware of their son s ac ons Studying a group of people who share a naturally occurring event and studying their reactions 0 Ethnography Researcher is a participant in the group being studied Participant observation However when observers tend to change the outcome of their study Times Role in Research 0 CrossSectional 0 Study different aged groups of students Example Studying how 3 to 16 year olds understand movies differently o Microgenetic 0 Studies the changes of the cognitive process as it unfolds days or weeks A lot of observations Observed behavior is placed under a microscope Observe periods of change in behavior 0 Longitudinal Studies 0 Take months or years 0 Very expensive January 26 2016 0 Example HeadStart Longitudinal study saved HeadStart The effects of this program were not seen until the students were outofschool These students had better life skills than peers who had not taken this program 0 Keeps up with students with an extensive amount of time Quantitative Research Makes calculations makes measurements More popular than Qualitative Research Assesses relationship between variables or group s differences using numbers andor statistical data 0 Objective as possible 0 same with correlation and experimental studies 0 Apply similar situationspeople generalizing results Qualitative Research 0 Interpret subjectivesocially constructed meanings using words dialogue events and images as data 0 Wants to understand what eventsspecific situationspeople mean to people involved 0 No process of understanding is ever completely objective Research based on Evidence 0 Insight of expert practitioners and knowledge about the client integrates the best available research 0 What research should guide education 0 Robert Slavin I scientific evidence 0 David Berliner I disagree with Robert Slavin I classrooms and education setting cannot be controlled 0 Complementary methods 0 qualitative and quantitative research is involved 0 causes meanings and relations of events are put to question 0 Example I 10 classrooms how teachers that have few behavioral problems create a positive learning environment January 26 2016 Teachers can be the Best Researchers 0 Teachers can observe behavior and create experiments to try and correct the behavior 0 Action Research I Observations method testing done by the teacher to improve learning I uses same techniques as large research projects I Example 0 problemsolving investigations focused on a problem 0 Which prompts tend to have the most organized papers 0 Would assigned groups instead of letting the students decided cause less drama in student to student interaction Teaching Theories o Principle Established relationship between factors 0 when enough evidence from different studies all comes to similar conclusions 0 Theory Collection of ideas that have been researched 0 Start and finish of the research 0 Principles to Theories to Hypothesis 0 Hypotheses Prediction of what will occur in a study based on previous research and studies Research Cycle Steps Find hypothesis or research questions based on current theories Gather and analyze data about hypothesisquestions lnterpet the analyzed data Change and improve theories based on research Create new questions based on improved theories Empirical process 0 systematically collected data to test and modify theories owewwe How this Supports Student Learning 0 School and socialcontext factors 0 Most important thing in schools 0 Socialfamilial influences positive peer pressure and parental involvement 0 Student personal factors January 26 2016 0 Engagement behavior minds emotions motivations all need to be engaged 0 Learning Strategies teaching strategies that deal with social behavior cognitive and metacognitive Educational psychology directly deals with all of these supporting factors
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