The History of the United States to 1877
The History of the United States to 1877 AMH2010-0002
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ausley Beane on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH2010-0002 at Florida State University taught by Tarah Luke in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 229 views. For similar materials see The History of the United States to 1877 in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
American History January 8 2016 The first Americans How did they get here Pangea 240 million years ago Super Continent 3 The Bering land bridge Beringia Connects 2 continents together walked across to America 30000 years ago following food hunted animals no farming yet it was accidental 3 very chilly 3 frozen ice Paleolndian hunting first immigrants of Americans nomadic strict division of hunters and gathers fruits berries nuts 3 men hunted womengathered about 1000 years to get from Canada to South America know this because of Clovis Point spear points Mexico 13000 BCE What do they say 30 Shared common ancestry as people up north 3 Not many different civilizations Subsistence techniques Running out of food new approach to hunting Smaller game Bow and arrows Women s roles Diversifying cultures no longer paleo now archaic 5 major groups 1492 over 500 different cultures Languages religions dwelling subsistence strategies needs of kinship Archaic Indians change from Paleo hunting and gathering cultures also farmers name of the time period and people time after Paleolndians hunting change Traps hooks smaller game 0 O O O O O stone tools not only for hunting but to prepare food both had migration patterns but archaic returned 5 main groups 1 Great Plains Cultures Nebraska Missouri Oklahoma Nomadic Following buffalo 2Great Basin Cultures to the West of Great Plains Cultures Utah southern Oregon etc Nomadic because of lack of water 3 Pacific Coast Cultures More permanent cultures Pacific Ocean fishing etc Not much agriculture because they didn t need it 4 Eastern Woodland Cultures East of Mississippi River Densely forested Deer whitetail Food clothing weapons tools Gathered plants seeds acorns 25100 people river lake permanent Average life expectancy 18 Added agriculture First in Mexico and spreads North Squash sunflowers tobacco Corn becomes most important 3 Sisters Corn squash beans Women s gathering duties use of pottery Believed to come from Mexico for trading purposes Permanent established generally had pottery because it was heavier than baskets burial mounds Existence of hierarchy chief Size of mounds labor organization Cahokia 30 30000 peoples 3 largest 3 Sun worshippers 0 Chief had great power American History January 11 2016 Adena Culture Burial Mound Buried with women 5 Southwestern Arizona New Mexico West Texas Use of agriculture multiunit dwelling called very dry and difficult to find animals 3500 BCE corn traveled north through trade routes Mongollon Settlements houses with trench like big tent Kiva ceremonial sites 1000 CE Anasazi culture Pit houses Irrigation Cliff dwellings Pueblo Bonito Chaco Canyon ceremonial site Hotels 30 800 rooms 1130 droughts for 50 years disappearance of Anasazi no written languages picture stone wood animal skins patterns in baskets textiles bead work songs dances informed guesses no large vessels no metals other than copper no wheel no tamed animals Cannibalism Mexica NOT Aztecs capital Tenochtitlan 825 million people monuments and we have better understanding of the Mexica because when the Spanish arrive they write about Mexica hired themselves out as people to help other tribes 1330 5 years after dominance over tribes More than Spanish and Portugal combined Sun and War God Huitzilopochtli Warriors higher than priests Sacrifices of human blood 30 Keeps sun shining 0 Mexican Empire Warrior and priests control everybody else basically takes poor people s things and gives it to rich people opposite of Robin Hood American History January 13 2016 Age of exploration 1000 CE Vikings discover America no one really cares and credits them with discovery 12th century interest in luxury goods Trade relations development because of Asia Not a lot of sailing 14th century brings change Bubonic plague wipes out 13 of European population O 09 O 09 O 09 O 09 O 09 O 09 The black death More food supply land children Socially advanced Moved away Retreat to religion Those who didn t die though they were favored by God and decided to take bigger risks 0 Decided to explore the world Exploration was a way to become wealthier O 09 Was searching for a better quicker way to Asia In the 14th century new science breaks through allowed exploration 0 09 O 09 O 0 Printing press Navigation aids o Compasses hour glasses astrolabe Detailed sailing maps Portugal takes lead not Spain O 09 O 0 Portugal is tiny Wanted to increase their prestige Prince Henry the Navigator Son of Portugal king Gold 15th Century had no idea about size of Europe Afraid to venture too far Portuguese Exploration Scared to lose sight of land and uses currents Portuguese Caravel Was the go to ship for exploration 1460 s African Slaves 1488 Sailed around Africa East Indies Christopher Columbus born in Northern Italy Marries into important family Ventures into Atlantic twice before actually going to America Thought his journey was going to be 2500 miles it was actually around 10000 Columbus had 3 ships Nina Pinta Santa Maria first gets to Canary Islands Small island 300 miles north of Cuba Taino Indians Columbus was horrified They had no wealth Columbus assumed they had no religion because they had no Christian God American History January 15 2016 Imagine being on the both sides both Columbus seeing Taino Indians and Taino Indians seeing Columbus Indians thought they might be Gods The Europeans are the ones who thought Indians believed they were Gods we don t know how Indians actually felt Taino were nice to Spanish not aggressive Returns after 3 months Brings 17 Indians with him as proof of his discovery everyone thinks he found Asia Columbus never accepts he didn t find Asia when he returns Aristocrat Admiral of sea Indians are baptized as Christians Portugal and Spain have tension 1494 one year after Columbus returns Treaty of Tordesilas Imaginary line 1100 miles west of Canary Islands 3 Anything left west of the line is Spanish 3 Anything to the right east is Portugal s wanted Indian markets 3 Problem is it leaves out everybody else France Russia etc Sends Columbus back 17 ships more than 1000 men wants to find Asia s main land has to leave 39 guys Leaves them with the natives When he gets back the 39 guys had kidnapped and raped Taino women and results in the Taino men retaliating and killing all 39 sailors Columbus makes 4 total journeys dies thinking he found Asia 30 years after Columbus explorations Europeans geography had new revelations everybody wants a part of the discovery king henry the 7 previously shunned Columbus sends John Cabot Cabot finds tip of New Foundland Thought it was Asia He returns and they send him out again with ships no one ever hears from his again no one knows what happened to him Sailing for Indian ocean and lands up in Brazil Ferdinand Magellan takes him to the new world tip of brazil takes him around 4 months by the time his men land there they are thirsty hungry killed by locals credited with first circumnavigation of the world but didn t actually finish 18 guys out of 250 important because it proved without a doubt that Asia was SEPARATE from America and Columbus did not discover Asian trade route Realized its stupid to try to sail west to get to the east indies Europeans begin making the Americas their priorities and not as much Asia The Columbian Exchange goods ideas people old world gave new world Christianity iron goods and technology to make it domesticated animals cows etc the wheel sailing ships fire arms and diseases small pox wiped out a lot of cultures new world to old world corn tomatoes potatoes syphilis tobacco Tobacco becomes very popular Spain is convinced that gold and silver has to exist in America makes lndian slaves to look for gold checked in wrong places Hernan Cortes finds gold in Mexica colony arrives in new world at age of 19 1504 600 men and 11 ships to check out rumor of wealthy tribe Tabassco people think Cortes is god and gives him 20 young women Malinali Marina 3 Marries Cortes 3 Spoke many native languages 3 With marina Cortes is able to make friends with natives 3 Dies at 24 Montezuma II hears rumors of weird creatures near his land hears they are white faced 3 thinks Quetzalcoatl has returned someone who made people 3 there was an idea that Quetzalcoatl will return as a man with a white beard 30 gives Cortes a large disc of gold
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