Fundamentals of the Nervous System
Fundamentals of the Nervous System BIOL 214
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by kgrunwaldt on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 214 at Truman State University taught by Dr. Guffey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Science at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Fundamentals of the Nervous System Functions and Divisions of the Nervous Svstem Three main overlapping functions 0 Sensory input nervous system uses millions of sensory receptors to monitor changes occurring both inside and outside of the body 0 Integration processes and interprets sensory input and decides what should be done at each moment 0 Motor output nervous system causes a response by activating effector organs the muscles and glands Divided into two principal parts 0 Central Nervous System consists of the brain and spinal cord which occupy the dorsal body cavity I Integrating and command center of the nervous system I Interprets sensory input and dictates motor responses based on reflexes current conditions and past experiences 0 Peripheral Nervous System the part of the nervous system outside of the CNS consisting of nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord I Spinal nerves carry impulses to and from the spinal cord I Cranial nerves carry impulses to and from the brain I Two functional subdivision I Sensoryafferent consists of nerve fibers axons that convey impulses to the central nervous system from sensory receptors I Motorefferent transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs I Somatic voluntary nervous system I Autonomic involuntary nervous system I Sympathetic mobilizes body systems during activity I Parasympathetic conserves energy and promotes housekeeping functions during rest Histoloqv of Nervous Tissue Cells are densely packed and tightly intertwined Made up of two principal types of cells 0 Supporting cells neuroglia smaller cells that surround and wrap the more delicate neurons 0 Neurons excitable nerve cells that transmit electrical signals Neuroglia o Nerve glue 0 Six types of neuroglia four in the CNS and two in the PNS I CNS Neuroglia includes astrocytes microglia ependymal cells and oligodendrocytes I Outnumber neurons in the CNS by about 10 to 1 and make up about half of the mass of the brain I Astrocytes most abundant and versatile glial cells I Have a role in making exchanges between capillaries and neurons helping to determine capillary permeability guiding the migration of young neurons and synapse formation I Mop up leaked potassium ions I Connected together by gap junctions I Microglia small ovoid cells with thorny processes that monitor neuron health transform into macrophages that phagocytize microorganisms of neuronal debris I Ependymal cells circulate cerebrospinal fluid I Oligodendrocytes produce insulating coverings called myelin sheaths I PNS Neuroglia satellite cells and Schwann cells I Satellite cells surround neuron cell bodies and have similar functions to astrocytes I Schwann cells also called neurolemmocytes form myelin sheaths similar to oligodendrocytes
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