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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by CassandraEngen on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 121 at University of North Dakota taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Global Physical Environment in Geography at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
GEOG 121 CH 2 the Geographer s Tools TERMS Great Circles circles that pass through the center of the earth and divides the planet into equal halves Small Circles circles that intersect the earth s surface and that do not pass through the center of the planet Latitude part of the earth s grid system that determines location north and south of the equator Equator great circle that lies halfway between the north and south poles Northern Hemisphere half of the Earth that lies north of the equator Southern Hemisphere half of the Earth that lies south of the equator Parallels lines of latitude Low latitudes latitude zone between 35N and 358 Mid latitudes latitude zone between 35 and 55 in both hemispheres High latitudes latitude zone between 55 and 90 in both hemispheres Longitude part of the earth s gird system that determines location east and west of the prime meridian Meridians lines of longitude Prime Meridian arbitrary reference point for longitude US Public Land Survey primary way land is subdivided in the US Cartography the design and production of maps Map projection representation of the 3D earth on a 2D surface Conformal projection A map that shows the features of the earth with the correct shape but distorted relative size to one another Equivalent projection a map projection that shows the correct size of features throughout Map scale The distance ratio between two points on a map versus the real world distance Smallscale map map that shows a relatively large geographic area with a relatively low level of detail Largescale map a map that shows a relatively small geographical area with a relatively high level of detail Isolines lines on a map that connect data points of equal value Isobars isolines that connect points of equal atmospheric pressure Isotherms Isolines that connect points of equal temperature Isohyets isolines that connect points of equal precipitation Isopachs isolines that connect points of equal sediment or rock thickness Contours isolines that connect points of equal elevation Topography the shape and configuration of the Earth s surface Topographic map a map that displays elevation data regarding the Earth s surface Remote sensing the method through which information is gathered about the Earth from a distance Aerial photographs photographs taken of the Earth s surface from the air Sunsynchronous orbit a slightly inclined polar orbit that keeps pace with the Sun s westward progress as Earth rotates resulting in regular return intervals over every location on earth Spatial Resolution the area on the ground that can be viewed in detail from the air or space Pixel the smallest definable area of detail on an image short for pixel element GIS Geographic Information Systems Geostationary orbit an orbit where satellites remain over the same place on Earth every day This orbit is achieved because the satellite is place very high above Earth and travels at the same speed as the Earth s rotation Emissivity the amount of electromagnetic energy released by some aspect of the Earth s surface Multipath error error that results when a satellite signal reaches the GPS receiver directly from the satellite as well as others re ected from nearby buildings or other surfaces Environmental management GIS can be used to manage spatial information associated with soils wetlands vegetation specie topography and the location of data collection sites Municipal planning GIS is used in virtually all cities large towns and counties to manage spatial information such as road networks location of sewer and utility lines and emergency traffic routes Business needs a growing number of companies are incorporating GIS into their operations GIS can be used for example to preselect the most efficient delivery routes that will save fuel costs In addition GIS can be used to identify the best location for new shopping center based on surrounding demographic characteristics Geographic Grid 0 Most basic geographical theme location 0 Relative location I Comparing two locations 0 Minnesota is north of Iowa 0 Absolute location I Using geographical gridlines I Great Circle largest circles that can be made on a sphere bisect Earth 0 Represents shortest distance between any two points on the planet 0 Equator most important Great Circle 0 Maximum circumference of Earth I NS parallel lines v EW parallel lines create a grid 0 LatitudeLongitude Coordinate system 0 LatitudeLongitude Coordinate System 0 Any location can be found by its position NS of Equator and EW of Prime Meridian O Latitude EW parallels I Latitude line always parallel with Equator I Equator 0 Lat 0 parallel latitude O bisects Earth into NS Hemispheres I Low latitudes 35N 35 0 Warm consistent climate I Mid latitudes 35 55 NS 0 Seasonal weather warm summer cool winter Hirlh Hill3 HI39iiI quotiImlh I39llli I High latitudes 55 90 NS 0 Very cold short summers 0 Longitude NS meridians I Half of each circle of Longitude is called a Meridian I Meridians EW of Prime Meridian 180E 180W I Prime Meridian 0 Long 0 Reference point for longitude lines 0 Passes through Greenwich England 0 Differences between Lat and Long I Lat lines are always parallel I Long lines converge at the poles GEOG 121 CH 3 EarthSun Geometry and the Seasons 0 TERMS Big Bang Theory Theory that the Universe originated 14 billion years ago when all matter and energy expanded from a mass of extremely high density and temperature Sun Angle the angle at which the Sun s rays hit the Earth s surface at any given point and time Subsolar Point the point on Earth where the Sun s angle is 90 and solar radiation strikes the surface most directly at any given point in time Plane of the ecliptic the at plane on which the Earth travels as it revolves around the sun Perihelion the point of the Earth s orbit where the distance between the Earth and Sun is least Aphelion the point of the Earth s orbit where the distance between the Earth and Sun is greatest Axis the line around which the Earth rotates extending through the poles Circle of illumination the great circle on Earth that is the border between night and day International Date Line marks the transition from one day to another on Earth Spring Equinox Vernal Equinox when the subsolar point is located at the equator March 21 Summer Solstice when the subsolar point is located at the Tropic of Cancer June 20 Fall Equinox when the subsolar point is located at the equator Sept 22 Winter Solstice when the subsolar point is at the tropic of Capricorn Dec 21 Tropic of Cancer where the subsolar point is located on the Summer Solstice in the Northern Hemisphere Tropic of Capricorn where the subsolar point is located on the Winter Solstice in the Northern Hemisphere Solar Noon the time of day when the Sun angle reaches its highest point as the Sun arcs across the sky Diurnal cycle 24hr cycle Celestial dome sphere that shows the Suns arc relative to the Earth Hc h Fall 7 iii 7 39 7 E E Shape of Earth A W 339 0 Oblate spheroid L 0 Bulges at equator attened somewhat at poles 1 I Shape caused by f 39539 0 Centrifugal force of Earth s rotation H ii 0 density of earth s crust and gravitational eld I E Sun Angle I I 1 E 0 HIGH at low latitudes progressively less towards the poles J 39 0 Subsolar point I hilly Fltquot l I point on Earth where the Sun s rays are perpendicular to the i Edi39quotJ39Zii 53 quotEM 7 surface Sun 0 O Earth s Orbit around the Sun 0 O O O OO Angle 90 Lower latitudes receive more intense solar radiation Sun angle between 750 and 90 Higher latitudes receive less intense solar radiation Revolves Counterclockwise Elliptical path 36524 days to make full revolution around the Sun Leap Year once every 4th year a day is added to February Feb 29 to correct uneven length of time 36524 vs 365 days for Earth to orbit the Sun Earth is CLOSER to the Sun at perihelion Earth is FARTHER from the Sun at aphelion In northern hemisphere I WINTER is when Earth is CLOSEST to the Sun perihelion I SUMMER is when Earth is FARTHER from the sun aphelion I DISTANCE BETWEEN EARTH AND SUN DOES NOT CAUSE OUR SEASONS Earth s Rotation and AXial Tilt O O O O Earth rotates spins on its own axis Earth s axis tilted 2350 from being perpendicular to the ecliptic plane When viewed from above North Pole earth rotates counterclockwise Maintains tilt with respect to the Sun throughout the year I Reason for the seasons Days I Takes 24hrs for earth to make full rotation I One half of Earth is always illuminated I Boundary between day and night is called the Circle of Illumination I Humans established 24 time zones around the Earth based on Earth s rotational cycle I 360 24hr 15 longitudeh I International Date Line o 1800 longitude from Prime Meridian 0 Crossing the date line changes the day 0 Travelling West Mon to Tues etc 0 Travelling East Tues to Mon etc ME Elf Flutatitin Seasons Northern Hemisphere O O 0 SUMMER June aXis apparent tilt TOWARD the sun aphelion WINTER December aXis apparent tilt AWAY from sun perihelion apparent change in aXial tilt relative to the Sun I Moves solar point N or S over the equator during a year Etrl llurulilhmr 39 a Jr alfy my af rm uh If J39s mi w quotquot 1wa gaffMi 1LEE139iliEi I Solstice and Equinox O O O O axial tilt and orbit causes subsolar point to move between 235 0 N and 2350 S Tropic of Cancer 2350 N TrOpiC 0f Capricorn 2350 S H a a Winter Solstice I DEC 2122 I 1St day of Winter Northern 1St day of Summer Southern f Axis tilted AWAY from Sun I North Pole 24hr dark South Pole 24hr light I Subsolar point positioned at Tropic of Capricorn Spring Equinox Vernal Equinox I MAR 2021 I 1St day of Spring Northern 1St day of Autumn Southern Axis perpendicular to Sun I Subsolar point positioned at equator I Circle of Illumination reaches through each pole Summer Solstice I JUN 2021 I 1St day of Summer Northern I Axis tilted TOWARD the sun I North Pole 24hr light South Pole 24hr dark I Subsolar point positioned at Tropic of Cancer Fall Equinox Autumn Equinox I SEP 2223 I 1St day of Autumn Northern I Axis perpendicular to Sun I Subsolar point positioned at equator I Circle of Illumination reaches through each pole 1St day of Winter Northern 1St day of Spring Southern I Day and Night 0 O O O 0 Position of the Sun in the sky throughout the day shows the Earth s Rotation Sun always illuminates one half the earth at a time other half is in a shadow I Illuminated Day Shadow Night RISES in the EAST a Tatum 5139 mi H r FunFug I i n 1511 5 Gunmenn En nzn Ear2e H Emma q HTIiCJ a Thur ginII r Telugu539 Samuel I a P TIquotquotC quot Ee lz39l warm I Appears that Sun moves across the sky BUT actually is the rotation of Earth on its axis I Appears because your part is starting to get touched by the circle of illumination SETS in the WEST Solar noon highest point Sun reaches in the sky I Solar noon not always same as clock time on Earth I Why The time of sunrise and sunset varies across a time zone due to curvature of Earth 0 Angle of Sun and Length of Day Diurnal cycle 24 hr cycle Seasonal cycle depends on depends on Earth s angle in from the Sun I To follow use daily position of the Sun at solar noon at any given place I Living in middle latitudes of Northern hemisphere 0 Summer 0 Sun arcs across southern sky through day 0 Solar noon Sun directly to the south subsolar point always less than 235 0 N Tropic of Ca ncer shadows lie north 0 Sun highest in sky 0 Sun angle is greatest 0 Autumn 0 Solar noon lies farther south subsolar point moves towards equator 0 Sun angle decrease I Winter 0 Solar noon moves farther south subsolar point moves towards Tropic of Capricorn I Noontime sun is lowest Solar angle is least I After Dec21 sun migrates back north Eu Winter Salad5 LEW a A aring and Fall EquinGxEE urn JM ELM Hahn Eulm a39m E l lil alibi 39 0 Spring 0 Solar noon reaches farther North subsolar point moves towards equator 0 Sun angle increase Season Summer Autumn Winter Spring EquinoxSolstice Date June 2021 September 2223 December 2122 March 2021 Axial Tilt TOWARD the sun PERPENDICULAR to sun FARTHER from sun PERPENDICULAR to sun Subsolar Point Tropic of Cancer 2350 N Equator 00 Tropic of Capricorn 2350 S Equator 00 Solar Noon Highest Decreases Lowest Increases Sun Angle Greatest Decreases Least Increases
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