Ch.1 Lecture and Book Notes
Ch.1 Lecture and Book Notes Biol360
Cal State Fullerton
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monique Magpayo on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol360 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Maryanne Menvielle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Biology of Human Sex in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Ch 1 Notes 2316 LECTURE HISTORY OF SEX and book notes SEXUALITY is as central and all pervasive theme of human existence disciplines that study sexuality in their own way SOCIOLOGY studies the big picture of social and cultural norms and social behavior ANTHROPOLOGY studies crosscultural study of social issues and problems and is the fundamental human drive that differs among cultures PSYCHOLOGY studies the individual39s behavior what happens in the brain and hormones Medicine and Allied HEALTH SCIENCESgt UROLOGISTS GYNECOLOGISTS SURGEONS PSYCHIATRISTS FERTILITY SPECIALISTS LAW AND BUSINESS are interested in marketing and impact of societal versus intimate issues aristotle is the earliest of people that have been studying sex for centuries SEX RESEARCHERS IN THE LATE 19THEARLY 20TH CENT Richard Von KrafftEbing Havelock Ellis Sigmund Freud Alfred Kinsey William Masters and Virginia Johnson TIMELINE HISTORY OF SEX RESEARCH 1900 FREUD and the psychoanalytic movement about 1902 HAVELOCK ELLIS Studies In The Psychology of Sex between 1910 and 1920 so about 1915MAGNUS HIRSCHFELD and the German sexual reform movement 1930 MALINOWSKI MEAD anthropological studies a little before 1940 KINSEY begins survey around 1950 KINSEY publishes Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female a little before 1970MASTERS AND JOHNSON physiology of sexual response and sexual disorders 1970 JOHN MONEY errors in gender differentiation around 1972 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGISTs and experimental sex research 1985 explosion of AIDSrelated research 1990s contemporary sex surveys 2000s and on webbased surveys Richard Von Krafft Ebing was not included here so in book 18401902 His 1886 book PSYCHOPATHIA SEXUALIS is still selling well today pg 7 the book had 237 case histories illustrating all kinds of sexual quotdeviationsquot including masterbation homosexuality transvetism fetishism exhibitionism pedophilia bestiality sadism masochism necrophilia sexual xation on corpses coprophilia sexual xation on feces and sexual murder Jack the Ripper was one of the case histories KraftEbing claimed the right to quotnamequot sexual discorders and to quotdiagnosequot people who suffered from them ALFRED KINSEY began his work in the 1904s NOTES FROM BOOK SEXISM the belief in Men39s inherent superiority over women ANATOMISTS researcher who studies the structure of the body SPERM OR SPERMATOZOON in the 17th century JOHAN HAM a Dutch medical student placed a drop of semen under a primitive microscope he saw quotlittle animalsquot therefore sperm is a male gamete produced in the testicles English physiologist William Harvey predicted the existence of a female OVUM a mature female gamete or egg GAMETES Male sperm and female ova reproductive cells that unite at fertilization HOMOSEXUALL sexually attracted to persons of one39s own sex 0 quotfit of paroxysmquot is an ORGASM HYSTERIA derives from Greek word hustera meaning womb and it has a long history as a medical term referring to physical and mental problems thought to be caused by that organ SEX RESEARCH the scienti c study of sex SEXOLOGY the scienti c study of sex especially of sexual dysfunctions HAVELOCK ELLIS English Physician and writer 1859 1939 his works consisted largely of personal accounts of unusual forms of sexual expression he had a fascination of female urination He maintained an extensive correspondence with individuals in numerous countries with the aim of learning about their sexual activities and problems SIGMUND FREUD 18561939 was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis a school of thought that placed the origin of sexual problems in the operations of the unconscious mind especially during childhood Because psychoanalytic treatment required consultations between patient and analyst that might go on for years Freud created a means by which sexologists could earn a living His theoretical approach contrasted with that of GERMAN PHYSICIAN AND GAY RIGHTS PIONEER MAGNUS HIRSCHFELD who promoted biological ideas about sexuality especially homosexuality best known american sex researcher was ALFRED KINSEY of Indiana University 18941956 he was a trained zoologist and his colleagues undertook large scale sex surveys in the US He published the results of these surveys in two lengthy volumes SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE HUMAN MALE 1948 and SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE HUMAN FEMALE 1953 more than anyone else KINSEY HELPED MAKE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AN APPROPRIATE TOPIC FOR OBJECTIVE RESEARCH KINSEY was a biologist by profession He made a course of marriage that involved the study of sex he was a professor at the univesity BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI AND MARGARET MEAD were cultural ANTHROPOLOGISTS who investigated non western tribal cultures perspectives on sex BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI spent several years on the Trobriand Islands off the coast of New Guinea and he found that the islanders held a belief that was exactly opposite to that of Aristotle They considered that only the mother contributed to the making of the fetus THIS BELIEF was the foundation of a MATRILINEAL society in which kinship and descent were reckoned only though the female line 0 sexual matters lay at the center of the islanders culture and were freely discussed MARGARET MEAD 19011978 In her 1928 best seller COMING OF THE AGE SAMOA she described how it was a point of pride among teenage Samoan girls to have as many lovers as possible These exploits left them well adjusted and prepared for successful married lives SIGMUND FREUD his conception was unconscious mind was more broadly focused in its sexual desires than was the conscious mind this was particularly true during early childhood which he believed included autoerotic and homosexual phases as well as incestuous desires directed toward one or the other parent FREUD THOUGHT THE quotNORMALquot progression to adult heterosexuality could be derailed in ways such as unconscious emotional processes such as hostile tooOclose orjealous relationships with a parent of sibling These phenomena could lead to what Freud called PERVERSIONS mental states in which adult sexual desires were directed towards atypical targets such as people of the same sex inanimate objects FETISHISM and so on NEUROSES in which the sexual element was supposedly repressed from consciousness altogether and reemerged in the form of nonsexual traits and disorders such as obsessive compulsive behavior depression or quothysteriaquot FREUD TRIED TO UNDERSTAND THE MIND IN TERMS OF PROCESSES THAT THOUGH HIDDEN WERE INHERENTLY MENTALUNCONSCIOUS THOUGHTS and he believed INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS held the key to sexual orientation and other aspects of adult sexuality MAGNUS HIRSCHFELD proposed the existence of two neural centeral in the brain that were responsible for sexual attraction to men and women respectively He suggested during early fetal life all humans possessed both centers but later one center grew and dominated while the other one regressed Hirschfeld believed that sex hormones channeled development in one direction or another and that people also had a genetic predisposition to same sex or opposite sex attraction FREUD AND HIRSCHFELD represented opposite approaches to understanding the mind and sexuality HIRSCHFELD TRIED TO REDUCE THE MIND TO RELATIVELY SIMPLE NONMENTAL PHENOMENA SUCH AS THE GROWTH AND ACTIVITY OF NERVE CELLS HORMONE SECRETION AND INFO ENCODED IN THE GENES These phenomena controlled sexual development in a manner that was largely independent to family relationships and other aspects of life experience birth control was illegal until the 60s FEMINISTS CAMPAIGNED FOR SEXUAL REFORMS book notes The American gynecologist WILLIAM MASTERS 1915 2001 and his research assistant later wife VIRGINIA JOHNSON 1925 recruited volunteers to engage in sexual behavior in their laboratory during the late 1950s they studied their volunteers39 sexual responses not only by visual observation but also by means of recording instruments they published their observations in a 1966 book HUMAN SEXUAL RESPONSE this book was the rst comprehensive description of how men39s and women39s bodies perform during sexual behavior they also studied men and women who suffered from a variety of sexual problems and they developed techniques for helping such people improve their sex lives this was in their book HUMAN SEXUAL INADEOUACY 1970 FEMINISM the belief that women are entitled to the same social economic and political rights as men MARGARET SANGER 18791966 campaigned tirelessly for women39s right to learn about and use contraceptives she spent a month in jail at one point She and her colleagues opened birth control clinics and helped develop new contraceptive technologies THE PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION traces its origins to sanger39s movement the bible of the feminist movement of 1960 and 1970 was OUR BODIES OURSELVES which was published in 1970 SOCIALIZATION the effect of social in uences such as familyeducation peer groups and the media on the development of psychological or behavioral traits GENDER the collection of psychological traits that differ between males and females TRANSGENDER a person who identi es with the other sex TRANSEXUAL a person who identi es with the other sex and who seeks to transition to the other sex by means of hormone treatment and sex reassignment surgery in the late 1920s and 1930s two chemists German ADOLF BUTENANDT and Yugoslav born LEOPOLD RUZICKA played key roles in the identi cation and synthesis of steroid SEX HORMONES their achievements earned them Nobel Prizes they introduced THE PILL which was rst marketed in the late 1950s REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY the study of fertility and pregnancy led to the development of in vitro fertilization IVF BY BRITISH PHYSIOLOGIST ROBERT EDWARDS and he got a Nobel Prize as well rst test tube baby was born in 1978 thanks to him MICROBIOLOGY the study of microscopic organisms especially those that cause disease led to effective treatments for sti39s ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION ED a persistent inability to achieve or maintain an erection suf cient to accomplish a desired sexual behavior such as coitus to orgasm VIAGRA was introduced in 1998 NEUROSCIENTISTS have discovered structural functional and chemical differences between the brains of men and women SEXUAL ORIENTATION the direction of an individual39s sexual feelings sexual attraction towards persons of the opposite sex same sex or both sexes COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY the study of internal mental processes EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGISTS seek to explain how evolution has molded our genetic endowment to favor certain patterns of sexual feelings and behaviors CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGISTS and PSYCHOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGISTS concern themselves with the in uence of ethnic and cultural diversity on thought behavior and interpersonal relationships CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS deal with emotional behavioral and personality problems that often have sexual element SEX THERAPISTS deal speci cally with problems that interfere with the enjoyment of sex NHSLS NATIONAL HEALTH AND SOCIAL LIFE SURVEY a national survey of sexual behavior relationships and attitudes in the US conducted in the early 905 NSSAL NATIONAL SURVEY OF SEXUAL ATI39ITUDES AND LIFESTYLES a British survey of sexual behavior relationships and attitudes conducted in the early 905 NSSHB NATIONAL SURVEY of SEXUAL HEALTH AND BEHAVIOR a national survey of sexual behavior in the US based at Indiana University and published in 2010 GSS GENERAL SOCIAL SURVEY a long running periodic survey of the US population run by National Opinion Research Center SCRIPT THEORY the analysis of sexual and other behaviors as the enactment of socially instilled roles ETHNOGRAPHY the study of a cultural group often by means of extended individual eldwork LECTURE RESEARCH METHODS and book notes starting on pg 18 Scienti c study is cautious conservative stepby step More data more reliability SCIENTIFIC METHOD Observations things we see hear smell taste or touch may lead to question Question Ask a question then scientist will make a hypothesis which is an answer to this question they came up with Hypothesis Not necessarily correct It s the working solution scientists will use for testing Prediction Done for prep for testing If I do x then y will happen It is made by the hypothesis Test Experimental or additional observation 0 Test does not support hypothesis revise hypothesis or pose a new one 0 Test supports make additional predictions and test them Anytime we test a hypothesis in an experiment we will have VARIABLES Independent variables IV the thing we are changing manipulating Dependent variables DV what changes as a result ofthat Sex Research IV THE STIMULUS THAT THE RESEARCHER GAVE DV THE RESPONSE THAT WAS MEASURED Characteristic of a subject or quantity that can change 0 Individual attributes o Magnitude of stimulus provided 0 Nature of individual s response time TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS Laboratory investigations Longitudinal and crosssectional studies look at how things are diff for people at diff ages Longitudinal will study same woman for a LONG TIME More accurate but is much more expensive Crosssectional if faster Diff people with diff ages are studied at once Surveys questionnaires and interviews Field studies researcher goes out into environment and observe Ex Going to a bar and observing irting habts Correlation Studies looks at relationship between two things MASTERS amp JOHNSON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SEXUAL RESPONSE 1954 participants engaged in sexual behavior in the laboratory They followed heart rates muscles etc Instruments such as electromyographs were used to take measurements Data collection techniques included practice sessions to get them comfortable so when measurement taken then the actions would be natural LIMITATIONS of the scienti c method in the study of human sexuality Reliability and accuracy of the data inthelab PROBLEM OF REFUSAL OR NONRESPONSE people refuse to participate VOLUNTEER BIAS may occur when the researcher studies people who agree to be in the research More issues RELIABILITY OF SELFREPORTS OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR PURPOSEFUL DISTORTION intentionally giving self reports that are distortions of reality MEMORY it is difficult to remember facts accurately DIFFICULTIES WITH ESTIMATES it is dif cult to estimate time especially when engaged in sex SELF REPORTS vs DIREC T OBSERVATIONS DIRECT OBSERVATION are accurate no purposeful distortion or inaccurate memory can occur PROBLEMS expensive timeconsuming and sexual behavior in the laboratory might be inhibited There is always going to be some kind of error EXTRANEOUS FACTORS Gender Race or age of the interviewer may in uence the outcome of sex research Male and Female respondents prefer a female interviewer WORDING OF OUESTIONNAIRES INFLUENCE SEX RESEARCH SAMPLING Two groups population and the sample Risk of sampling all the issues before Best if large feasible randomly selected and as representative of population as possible SOME STATISTICAL CONCEPTS MEAN and VARIABILITY Mean is the average of all the scores of the people VARIABILITY indicates how different peoples answers were INCIDENCE vs FREQUENCY INCIDENCE a percentage of people giving a particular response FREQUENCY how often a person does something CORRELATIONAL METHODS A CORRELATION is a number that measures the relationship between 2 variables How are these things related Just because they correlate does not mean one caused the other DO NOT indicate cause and effect relationships Explore relationships between two variables RESEARCH HAS HAD A PRACTICAL IMPACT ON PEOPLE S SEX LIVES the discovery of sex hormones led to the development of oral contraceptives and treatment for breast and prostate cancer advances in reproductive physiology led to the development of vitro fertilization discoveries in microbiology led to treatments for STDs and cervical cancer drug discoveries have resulted in effective treatments for erectile dysfunction Neuroscientists have discovered brain differences between men and women that relate to sexual orientation ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS o 1953 APA published Ethical Standards for Psychologists informed consent confidentiality discontinuance debriefing protection from harm TEELA SANDERS sociologists may also engage in ethnographic eldwork immersing themselves in their subjects lives in the same way that psychological anthropologists do Sanders came to the conclusion that off street prostitutes are not the passive victims of poverty or drugs but customers seek and obstain more than sex 0 The COST of sex may be counted not in money but in time lost from studies or career or in the effect of a damaged reputation that lowers a person s future value in the sexual marketplace Jewish Law HALAKAH include bans on sex outside of marriage sex during a women s menstrual cycle homosexuality masturbation and even lustful thoughts
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