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Personality Notes Week One and Two

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by: Andrea Galindo

Personality Notes Week One and Two Psy 228- 01

Marketplace > Southern Connecticut State University > Psychlogy > Psy 228- 01 > Personality Notes Week One and Two
Andrea Galindo
GPA 3.94
Personality Psychology
Kenneth S Walters

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About this Document

Chapter One: What's Personality? Chapter Two: Personality Assessment & Measurement
Personality Psychology
Kenneth S Walters
Class Notes
Psychology, Personality Assessment & Measurement, personality, Introduction
25 ?




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Galindo on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 228- 01 at Southern Connecticut State University taught by Kenneth S Walters in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychlogy at Southern Connecticut State University.

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Date Created: 01/25/16
II Chapter One What s Personality 0 Branch of psychology devoted to studying the factors that make people unique individuals 0 What does it mean to be a person How do we understand people as unique individuals 0 What is the nature of the Self Eight Basic Aspects of the Personality 0 factors outside of awareness 0 factors providing sense of identity or self 0 genetic physical physiological or temperamental factors 0 patterns of thinking Personality as a Scientific Approach 0 Form broad theories to explain patterns of behavior Derive specific hypotheses from those theories Devise studies and experiments to test those hypotheses Measure aspects of the personality Subject those measured data to statistical analysis Draw conclusions from the data 0 Accept or reject hypotheses Ultimately either build evidence for or ultimately reject broad theories A systematic and mathematical approach Correlation 0 Correlation coefficient Index of association or relationship between two variables 0 Range1005000510 0 As variable A increases variable B also increases 0 As variable A decreases variable B decreases 0 Example Dominance amp Extraversion 0 when you put in more study hours the better you ll do on your test Both Variables have to increase or decrease together to be a positive correlation 0 As variable A increases variable B decreases 0 As variable A decreases variable B increases 0 Example Shyness amp Extraversion 0 Negative Correlation ex Less paternal discipline the more behavioral problems you ll have when older One of the variables has to decrease while the other increase or visa versa 0 Correlations do NOT imply causation 0 No correlation Ex extroverts introverts and intelligences don t have a correlation When there s no increasing or decreasing from either variable or there s no pattern 3 concurrent time lines 1800 to the modern era It s called a tradition certain people work in a certain field of work 0 Mid Ger 0 Early sensation amp perception researchers 0 Johannes Muller Herman Helmholtz Ernst Weber Gustav Fechner German 0 1879 Vin a Volt created the first psychology lab 0 Wilhelm Wundt Ger 0 1879 Beginning of modern psychology HWilhelm Wundt O Emphasized empirical research methods Trained many students who established early psych labs in US Many American psychologist trained under him and then they came back to open the first psychology lab 0 Early I Franz Gall Ger anatomist Phrenology study of proposed relationship between mental characteristics and shape of the head Early form of psychological assessment Assessing personality by reading bumps amp variations on the skull Def Psychometric measurement of psychological things 0 Charles Darwin UK Variation occurs within and between species along various characteristics Natural selection favors some characteristics for survivability Basis for Theory of Evolution The process is called the Natural Selection Darwin isn39t a psychologist but a zoologist Sir Francis Galton UK Cousin of Darwin Early research on intelligence Applied Darwin s ideas to study of inheritance of individual differences in intelligence Early quotmental tests systematic collection of behavior samples in response to standard sets of stimuli Measured memory how much info you can keep etc 0 Alfred Binet Fr Founded first French psych lab Commissioned by French Gov t to develop method to identify school children who could not benefit from education due to intellectual limitations BinetSimon Scale 1896 first formal intelligence test battery 0 Lewis Terman US Stanford Univ Revised the BinetSimon Scale 0 StanfordBinet Intelligence Test 0 he took on the task to take the Binet testing scale and turn it into English and improve it to make it better Remains in use today James McKeen Cattell US Student of Wundt Early Established the study of quotsensorimotor tests of mental ability Wundt amp Galton in the US Was fired from Columbia for opposition to WWI Used money from lawsuit to found The Psychological Corporation which continues today manufacturing professional psychological tests 0 Forerunners to Psychoanalysis 0 Early to mid 0 European physicians focused on treating Gr quotAnimal Magnetism forerunner to modern hypnosis quotMesmerismquot Fr Used hypnosis to treat hysteria amp conversion disorder 0 Fr Studied dissociation and 5x5 of hysteria and conversion paralysis Bringing dissociated aspects of self into awareness was helpful 0 Sigmund Freud Austr 0 Univ ofVienna 0 1896 Personality viewed as developing from largely t btw 0 Views initially not well received by scientific community Developed into Freud s theory of psychoanalysis 2 important drives sex and aggression Psychological Assessment Grows 0 WWI Need to and emotional stability of military recruits 0 Army Alpha amp Beta Tests Groupadministered intelligence tests for literates amp illiterates 0 for soldiers who could read and write 0 for soldiers who cant read or write 0 Personal Data Sheet aka Woodworth Psychoneurotic Inventory to detect emotional behavioral problems Led to development of many psychological tests 0 Measurement of many traits skills amp abilities Modern Personality Theory 19305 19505 Early trait psychology 0 Gordon Allport 0 Raymond Cattell Field Theory personality and social 0 Kurt Lewin 0 Couldn39t t find a job because of his Jewish last name so he changedit 0 Personsituationinteractionism 0 A debate Took a decade to settle Lewin had a formal though that people influenced others of the interaction between the and by the ways they interact 0 Henry Murray 0 Traits viewed as needs Followed by contemporary approaches Chapter two Personality Assessment amp Measurement Objective vs Subjective Assessment 0 Measurement isn t dependent on the judgment of the person making the assessment 0 Objective is used more often nowadays 0 Measurement that relies on some degree of interpretation of responses by the person making the assessment 0 A far amount of judgment Test Reliability 1 0 Reliability In general the of test scores 0 Error variance variations in test scores caused by irrelevant extraneous factors and chance fluctuations A test designed to measure dominance Test contains 25 selfreport items using a 15 rating scale We know that dominance is a relatively stable trait Therefore we want scores on the dominance test to be stable over time We also want all of the 25 items to be consistent with each other Test Reliability 2 Two main types of test reliability Degree to which test items measuring the same construct are highly 0 Splithalf method equal 0 Cronbach s coefficient alpha average of all possible splithalf correlations 0 Degree to which test scores are across different administrations 0 Temporal stability 0 Correlation between scores derived from administrations to same subjects at T1 amp T2 0 Correlation decreases as the interval increases Test Validity 1 0 In general the degree to which the test measures what it is intended to measure 0 Degree to which a test appears to measure the proposed construct quoton the surface 0 Degree to which a test adequately samples the entire domain entailed by the construct 0 Ex Extraversion consists of six facets Grega riousness Assertiveness Activity Excitementseeking Positive emotions amp Warmth 0 A test of Extraversion must adequately sample all six facets Test Validity 2 0 Degree to which test scores are correlated with relevant outcomes 0 When two subjects have a correlation 0 SAT scores should be related to academic performance in coHege 0 Someone who 5 smarter will make a bigger salary because smarter people will major in engineer Engineer makehave a bigger salary 0 Degree to which the test really measures the theoretical construct it is intended to measure given all that is known about that construct 0 if you re measuring construct then there has be to Positive Negative and an uncorrelation o Dominance is known to be 0 Positively correlated with Extraversion 0 Negatively correlated with Social Avoidance 0 Uncorrelated with Warmth 0 Does the test of Dominance show that pattern of relationships Response Sets 0 Patterns of responding to selfreport test items that are unrelated to the personality characteristic being measured denying any indicators of social or psychological maladjustment 0 or endorsing items indicating maladjustment inaccurately All contribute to Types Of Personality Measures Selfreport tests Qsort tests Ratings amp judgments by others Biological measures Behavioral observations Interviews Expressive behavior Document analysis Projective tests Demographic amp lifestyle information SelfReport Test 0 Ss respond to paperandpencil items designed to measure a characteristic ie questionnaires type of personality measure gt Advantages Reliability and validity must be carefully evaluated Results can be negatively influenced by Ss inaccurately reporting about their own behavior ie inaccurate response sets 0 BFI amp NEO Pl3 0 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 MMPI Z 1 Sort Tests Ss are given a stack of 0 Ss sort cards into piles based on a relevant dimension 0 Not at all like me 0 Somewhat characteristic of me 0 Very characteristic of me More Advantages 0 Ss takes theirtime 0 More accurate 0 Disadvantages 0 One person at a time 0 Time consuming Ratings amp Judgments by Others 0 rate 55 on a characteristic of interest quotOthersquot include etc 0 Ratings can also be made by independent observers not known to the Ss 0 Some personality tests are actually completed by someone who knows the person rather than the person themselves 0 Can sometimes provide more accurate assessment of the trait or behavior Biological Measures Measures Of r 0 Skin conductance aka Galvanic skin response GSR 0 Measures of 0 Computerized Axial TomographL scan 0 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 0 histological staining After death 0 Measures of 0 Electroencephalogram T impulses at scalp 0 Positron Emission Tomography scan metabolism of in the brain 0 Functional Ma netic Resonance Ima in uses magnetic fields to in the brain Behavioral Observations 0 Direct measurement of actual behavior based on direct observation 0 hoW many 0 the of a behavior 0 39 for which the behavior occurs Interviews 0 Some responses may trigger followup questions also according to a set protocol 0 Responses are subjected to a scoring system Document Analysis 0 Records are treated as a 0 Variables are defined that represent personality characteristics of the person 0 Variables are then coded and scored for each person in the study based on examination of the personal records 0 Records 0 Medical Criminal Military and Educational 0 Criminal behavior 0 Examination of criminal records and coding number of convictions for Ss in the study Projective Test 5s is presented with 0 Responses are scored using a standardized scoring system 0 Scores are derived for variables that reflect or are related to personality characteristics 0 Assumes that 55 project aspects of themselves onto the stimulus 0 Rorschach Inkblot Test Thematic Apperception Test 0 DrawaPerson Test Demographic Variables 0 Age 0 Genden 0 Ethnicity 0 Socioeconomic status SES 0 Education level Basic Research Design 1 Measure two or more variables 0 Calculate the statistical relationship between them 0 No causation implied only relationships Manipulation of independent variable IV Random assignment to groups Measurement of dependent variable DV Comparison of groups on scores of the DV Results can imply causation Basic Research Design 2 n personality research random assignment is often impossible or unethical Example We cannot assign 55 to groups of ntroverts vs Extroverts 0 Hence personality research is often correlational


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