New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 1 A&P 1 notes

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Augusta Brantley

Week 1 A&P 1 notes Biol 2010-001

Augusta Brantley
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document

Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Richard S. Pirkle

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Get these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Human Anatomy and Physiology 1

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Hey guys, These are the notes for Pirkle's Anatomy and Physiology 1 class. We had a snow day on Friday, so there is only 1 set of notes for lecture. I also put the notes I took on the readings we...
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Richard S. Pirkle
Class Notes
anatomy and physiology




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"Killer notes! I'm stoked I can finally just pay attention in class!!!"
Rogers Gulgowski DVM

Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology 1

Popular in Biology

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Augusta Brantley on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2010-001 at Tennessee Tech University taught by Richard S. Pirkle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Biology at Tennessee Tech University.


Reviews for Week 1 A&P 1 notes

Star Star Star Star Star

Killer notes! I'm stoked I can finally just pay attention in class!!!

-Rogers Gulgowski DVM


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/25/16
Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology L Anatomy study of structure of the human body Physiology study of function of the human body 1 how s and why s of the way the body works N They are distinct but interrelated work together physiology depends on the underlying anatomy anatomical structures with no physiology mean nothing Major Theme The Unity of Form and Function the function is dependent on the form Wavs to Studv Anatomv 1 Look at it 2 gross anatomy you can see it with the naked eye 3 microscopic you need a tool to see it 4 ultrasonic look at the stuff inside 2 Physical Examination 1 palpation touching 5 auscultation listening 6 percussion hitting 3 Dissection of Cadavers dead people 4 Use of Comparative Anatomy compare to other species 5 Medical Imaging Radiology CT scan pet scan Wavs to Studv thsioloov 1 Relies on knowing anatomy 3 Experimental 4 Subdivision dividing it up into different physiology 5 Most is on a cellular or molecular level and can t picture it Whv do we studv Anatomv and thsioloov 1 We have had a long standing interest on how we work 6 The question Why do we break 1 medical history had different reasons Jan 20 2016 Week 1 Jan 20 2016 Week 1 Will of God why there were demons witches miasmasvapors supernaatural events 2 Most are microorganisms so most people can t see it until the microscope created by Leuwenhoke 3 The Germ Theory was proposed in the 1500 s but wasn t accepted until the 1800 s 4 Doctor s didn t was their hands Historv of Anatomical Structure 1 7 8 9 Nobody tried to study it Cadaver dissection was banned and considered taboo Claudius Galen used comparative anatomy in the 2nd century 1st detailed anatomical text was written by Andreas Versallus in 1543 Jan222016 VVeek1 Organization of the Body Part 1 anatomy the study of structure physiology the study of function dissection carefully cutting and separating tissues to reveal their relationships anatomy and dissection both mean cutting apart cadaver dead human body used in the 1st steps of training in schools of health science comparative anatomy the study of multiple species in order to examine similarities and differences and analyze evolutionary trends many insights of the human body come oths radiology the branch of medicine concerned with imaging gross anatomy structure that can be seen by the naked eye whether by radiology surface observation or dissection the functions of the body result from individual cells histology microscopic anatomy taking thinly sliced and stained tissue specimens and observing them with a microscope cytology study of structure and function of individual cells histopathology microscopic examination of tissues for sign of disease subdisciplines neurology nervous system endocrinology hormones pathophysiology mechanisms of disease comparative physiology study of how different species have solved different problems of life basis development of new drugs and medical experiments By 1839 botanist Matthew Schleiden and zoologist Theodor Schwann said that all organisms were made up of cells 1st cell theory but not accepted until a century later most important breakthrough all functions of the body are now interpreted as the effects of cellular activity Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes saw science as a far greater systematic enterprise with enormous possibilities for human health and welfare Bacon outlined a system to see similarities differences and trends in nature and drawing use generalizations from observable facts called the scientific method scientific method certain habits of disciplined creativity careful observation logical thinking and honest analysis of one s observations and conclusions Jan222016 Week 1 hypothesis formed by asking a question education speculation of possible answer to a question consistent with what is already known capable of being tested and possibly falsifiedproven wrong by evidence Several elements of design address these issues Sample Size the number of subjects used in the study gives confidence in the outcome big sample sizes control for chance events and individual variations in response Control Group consists of subjects that are like the treatment group but with respect to the variable being tested controlunaltered Inductive method of study process of drawing conclusions and making predictions from repeated observation Hypothetic deductive method begins with hypothesis and tries to answer the question by a test on observable data psychosomatic effects effects of the subject s state of mind on his or her physiology can give undesirable effects on experimental results if not controlled placebo substance with no physiological effect on the body experimenter bias experimenters may want certain results and could affect the interpretation of data In result they use the double blind method double blind method the subject or experimenter can t know whether the subject is receiving the placebo statistical tests that can be applied to data chisquare tests the T test analysis of variance science is grounded in statements of probability peer review critical evaluation by other experts in that field ensures honesty objectivity and quality in science scientific fact info that can be independently verified by any trained person law of nature generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave result is based on repeated confirmed observations theory explanatory statements derived from facts laws and confirmed hypotheses Jan222016 week 1 Chapter 12 Organisms gt Organ systems gt Organs gt Tissues gt Cells gt Organelles gt Molecules gt Atoms organism single complete individual organ system group of organs with unique collective functions circulation respiration or digestion organ structure with 2 or more tissue types that work together to form a specific func on have definite anatomical boundaries visibly distinguishable from like structures tissue mass of similar cells and cell products that form a region in the organ and performs a specific function cells smallest unit of organism that carry out all the basic functions of life most simplistic thing in life enclosed in the plasma membrane and composed of lipids and proteins organelles microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions ex mitochondria centrioles and lysosomes molecules organelles and other cellular components made up of at least 2 atoms macromolecules largest molecules ex proteins fats DNA atoms the smallest particles with unique chemical identities every person is different metabolism requires excretion excretion separation of wastes from tissues and their elimination from the body responsiveness irritability or excitability ability of organisms to sense and react to stimuli stimuli changes in the body development any change in form or function over a lifetime 2 Maior processes of develooment differentiation the transformation of cells with no specialized function into cells that are committed to a particular task growth increase in size physiological variables differ with sex age weight diet degree of physical activity and environment Jan222016 week 1 homeostasis the body s ability to detect change activate the things that oppose it and maintain stable internal conditions figure out what s wrong and do the things to make it right again dynamic equilibrium balanced change the internal state of the body set point an average value for a given point to maintain equilibrium conditions fluctuate around this point negative feedback the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate and reverse it keeps a variable close to its set point key mechanism to maintaining health evolution change in genetic composition of organisms over a period of time vasoconstriction narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin retain warm blood deeper in the body reduced heat loss baroreceptors sensory nerve endings in large arteries of the heart cardiac center regulates the heart rate 3 Components of the Feedback Loop 1 receptor structure that senses a change in the body 2 integrating control center processes info relates it to other available info and makes a decision about appropriate response 3 effector cell or organ that carries out the final corrective action positive feedback loop physiological change that leads to a greater change in the same direction produces rapid change flow down gradients blood circulation urine formation temperature electrical change gradient difference in chemical concentration electrical charge physical pressure temperature other variables between one point and another down the gradient matter or energy move from a higher value to a lower value up the gradient matter or energy move from a lower value to the a higher value 90 of medical terms are from Greek or Latin roots eponyms terms coined from names of people acronyms 1st letter or first few letters of a series of words PET scan positron emission tomography cardi heart my muscles path disease gastric pertaining to the belly of muscles logy study of hypo below epi above endo within inside di two abdominis of the abdomen rectus straight muscle erector muscle that straightens spinae of the spine stratum of the epidermis lucidum clear layer foramen in the skull magnum large hole Jan222016 week 1


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.