Genetics Week 2
Genetics Week 2 BIOL-3023
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniella Heussner on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-3023 at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Campbell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Spermatogenesis vs Oogenesis 01262016 Oogenesis can be developmentally discontinuous In humans and mice begins in embryonic ovary arrests at Prophase l Resumes at puberty Second division only after fertilization o Parthenogenesismaking the most of meiosis BONUS QUESTION OF PARTHENOGENESIS DIAGRAM females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs Facultative can also reproduce sexually snakes lizards sh Obligate allfemale species lizards and snakes Sexual reproduction in owering plants and in animals diploid 2n individuals produce haploid cells via meiosis BUT Most owing plants product both males and female gametes AND 0 Extra stage in haploid phase gametes sperm egg produces from gametophyte not direct products of Meiosis II as in animals 0 Mendel How are characteristics transmitted from parents to offspring 0 Experiments of plant hybridization Mendel methods Monohybrid cross Chose 7 visible characters 0 Each character had two distinct traits Focused initially on one character cross Monohybrid cross Crossed truebreeding parent strains that differed in trait blue of focal character 0 Observed trait values in rst lial F1 generation 0 Selffertilized F1 plants 0 Observed trait values in second lial F2 generation 0 All f1 plants carry the trail value of one parent Mendel three principles of inheritence 1 quotUnit factorsquot that control heritable characters exist in pairs 2 When two different unit factors responsible for a single character are present in an individual one is dominant to the other which is said to be recessive 3 During the formation of gamete paired unit factors segregate at random each gamete receives one of the other with equal erHhood Modern genetic terminology Mendels unit factors genes Alternate form of same gene allels Physical expression of a trait phenotype An individual with two identical alleles homozygous An idividual with two different alleles heterozygous An allele that determines phenotype when homozygous or heterozygous dominant An aee that determines phenotype only when homozygous recessive How did mendel gure this out F2 ratio Product low of probabilities When two independent event occur simultaneously the probability of the two outcomes occurring in combination is equal to the product of their individual probabilities of occurrence The test Cross Mendels way to determine genetic outcomes Mendels conclusions Genes that control heritable characters exist in pairs alleles When two different alleles responsible for a single character are present in an individual one is dominant to the other which is said to be recessive During the formation of gametes paired alleles segregate at random each gamete receives on or the other with equal probability During the formation of gametessegregating pairs of alleles from different genes assort independently of each other Chromosomal theory of heredity What Mendel discovered Genes that control heritable characters octets is pairs Members of each pair separate during meiosis each gamete receives one of the other with equal probability Offspring inherit one copy from each parent 0 Sutton and Boveri discovered Like genes chromosomes exist in pairs Members of each pair separate during meiosis Inherited traits are controlled by genes residing on chromosomes which are transmitted singly through the gametes so that offspring have the same
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