Note 13 for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
Note 13 for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 13 07 Oct 2008 SmaH popaiaiion Probs Conservaiion Bioiogy ECOL nook5001 Umvzi sify of Arizona FaH2DOE PNka 015516 paninen WA skim Bonine aEpps UECDNVVQ Read rig 39Sm Tm Thur D9 Oc ahe Cari Sen Edward 2101 ZDEIA HOGLCan2rvmmn mm mm was far 119 was DesaHe s mm 2mm Tue M Camber WA DHka CH6 Mormame 2 a 19 spiianai siipnisss Lab FridaysSunday 17719 omoben THANK yous Uecm 123a naayim gas EsE1aaun an sway Haiwaien baiiie fund piaie cup aiensiisv snacks 7 sunscreen ciuseriued snaes iayens pains b nas cuuier7Jug IbVISA s Readings unCuurse Websiie W M 3 06mm i U NW We 0 pl Quiz m7 01 mm 1 Draw 1111111131 1 gaph Lhatxepxesmts39he cancepl uf39he equhhmxn Lhzaxy afxslandhageagsphy hcAnhmk stm19673 p15 2 Please explmn unis gixe rm yvur Thames and Reid mm mm Thusday 11s week amp KathyGem39slecuxe a p15 1 in z Nhnt daesMVP sauermnua amiin armsemsev 1 pl 4 Expianm asanaianissiweenenaagams and Exangus amamees U se 2x amples 2 pis 5 Nhnt are wupiepmngrm nae aeauwtyexh amanan l Decembe 1 p31 Rewsii Infermedia re Dis rurbance Hypo rhesis successiu nesei supercumpemurs I gt141 a Emmussim a m ansSu ExanM BHZEIEIE 35 3 25 2 is 1 as a WW9Q W 9 B Revisn 1 Island Biogeogr aphy Quammen Excerpt from 511119 11f the 011111015255 Lyell Frogs vs Birds W e dispersal Darwin MucAMh ms Oceanic vs Continental Wilson succession Size Age Distance equilibrium Popula rions amp Ex rinc rion see Primuck a 5 a e eie Species Vulnerability to Extinction LIST A Small Populu on size 1 Small geograpliic range 2 One or only a few populations 3 Small population sizes 4 Declining population sizes Wm nipopuuims Imusing 5 Actively harvested by humans o i may tynml nmnumm mmmwu umu m Species Vulnerability to Extinction LIST B Populations Genetics Individuals have large home ranges amp Individuals have large bodies Poor dispersers PVA population viability analysis Seasonal migrants Low genetic variability Specialized habitat Only in stable pristine environments Individuals aggregate Evolved isolated from humans 10 Species with threatenedextinct relatives omwosglbwlv thanks to Margaret Evans Population Dynamics populations are dynamic not static g WWW in Lemmings p i 5 i i x i i l y Eni i ii yii iii m iasa ieai 1932 use up iees l935 tasi ioao law an ion tee W3 m inoniaio inmiir asuunin inn iia nuiamin i n la Cause ot cycl 9 orange in population not completely understood cycle lengtn average 3 Byear Max migration in responsetonigndensnywnndecreasng u foodupplyomet mexxwmmng nvolved populations are dynamic not static Whales M the Antarctic 739 mime 3 E 2 a so wines g k 3 1956 tEAHn 1959 60 teaevn Many things affect population size competition popalaaon one stes structure m7srems other interactions pude hszxvmy chance mug population pollination we commas Size some habitat amibuzcs enwrQnrnental 136va Emma succession or dvma39zodn e mo in so i ens cmnzgnjwlyn dtsmrbancc g V s V is exponential growth an unrealistic model Humans on planet Earth fl u Wlusmhidml Population sizes change over39 time Why What causes change in population size What regulates population size If we can answer these questions we might be able to make changes that increase populations of declining endangered species 1 Exponential growth densityindependent deterministic In a closed population no immigration or emigration population growth is a function of birth and death rates Papulailnn ml dNe d39ebdN as 7 oz Rlngrnecked pheasant h an Protection Island 2 Logistic growth densitydependent deterministic intraspecific competition stabilizes population size b rth rates go down aridor death rates go upwtth inereas ng pupulmlun size g m minim f m 2 mi in IS Alternatively The population growth rate may increase with population size positive densitydependence Allee effect minimum Viable population size N Allee effect l Ho w group detense against predators him M It mourn memo norm in 21 3 Structured population models densityindependent deterministic This is the type of model most often used in population viability analysis What is meant by quotstructurequot A popuiation is unstructured it all indiuiduais have the same rates of survival and tertiiity A popuiation is structured it differences among individuals in age developmentalstage orsize cause their to have different survival or fertility rates Allee effect How i rt rmquot rid In animals egroup detense against predators egroup attack of prey errates difficult to fin rCr iliCal number to stimulate breeding behavior In plants epoiiinator limitation eseiteincompatibiiity einbreeding depression The two categories of models we have considered thus far assume that all individuals in a population have the same birth and death rates no genetic developmental or physiologicai differences among indiuiduaisiM DawmAwoiiowSoY wroi W under some circumstances this might cause us to inaccurately predict population size VAILE 63 suruirui am lo remanded woodpeckers m at rrm reproductive stages mm Waiters 1550 r r th and on toiar may w Inpomim Jug albadyem Dead any wrviwlg an nutpiiiips our ii a sniurry tuiiln m ti oz tiriyorcriuhorru m 647 1 u to phoning inns ins 2m tm ii rt rihiirrs 2s it it u o L ife Tab l e Life Table When lambda is greafer Than 1 The populafion increases in size When lambda is less Than 1 The population decreases in size Gene ric Diversify and Population Size Small populations eredused gene ow eiubreedmg depression ii edrm rslochasllclly re ective population size N Vs Declining populations 3 DensiTyindependen r deferminis ric sTrLlcTLlred population growth What else can structured populatioii models Sensifivifx 2 quotS The sensitivity of A to each malr lx element describes how much 1 will be affecled by achange in that H a slllo probability Would it be better to focus conservation efforts on improving the survival of liateliliiigs or largejuveniles or adults Lambda population growth rate 2t van Dyke p 178 Four Horsemen of The Exfincfion Apocalypse 1 Genefic Sfochasficify 2 Environmenfal Sfochasficify 3 Demographic Sfochasficify 4 Nafur39al Cafasfr ophes curumuou mmnoeeammmuioioom tum quotM Effec rive Popula rion Size 39 Ne 4Nme NmNf Eg a popula rion of seals wi rh 6 males and females Number or Breeders Ne 461506150 23 31 Quickly lose rare alleles in bo r rlenecks i i liquot i i n i Vim glue 52 ICheetuh MuJor Hisiocompui biliiy Complex 33 Cyprnodarl macuarLs Deser i Pupfish Desert pup sh declined due to me introduc on and spread of exo c predatory and i compe tive shes water impoundment and diversion wamr pollu on groundwamr pumping siream channelization and habitat modification gt Miami magnum Rune a anew VIP Mama NAHDNAL uommm Healthv Davulatian or almost mum fsh inhabits this was 5 Th 5 last Vemqe or a unique fish is being activelY managed O unobaquim Bizsen F upl39ish Inbreeding Coefficient F 2 alleles iden iical by descent 1 Rule Frankel and Soule 20 do so so 100120140160 iBO 200 220 Population Size IV i Figure 53 Fm I39Hl 39 flil um i ll l il in Hiiiii ri39li m minim rm ling iim rmuizI unit niiuilwii WM 32 Gene ric Drif r When popula rions number less Than a few hundred individuals random events become more important 139o genetic structure of popula i39ion Than natural selection 300010000 breeding ad ul i39s 34 Popula rion Ex rinci39ion Vor Tex problems wi rh small popula rions F Vor rex inbreeding depression Ie rhal equivalen rs homozygous recessives A Vor rex geneTic drifT and loss of varia rion can39T adap r R VorTeX r spon raneous ra re of increase coupled wi rh environmenTal sTochas rici ry D Vor rex disconTinuiTy isolaTion as Hardy Weinberg and He rer39ozygosi ry P q2 p2 2pq q2 Under Hardy Welnberg Equlilbrlum He 2W prE 5 HO can be caicuiated quot2 2 Inbreeding if HEl lt He Oudnreeding if HDgt He a Minimum Vlabiz Popuiailon MVP Frankzi Souiz Frankiln Shaffer 50500 Ruiz Shorilzx Mid term LongTzrm WA OI mum ma Equilibrium HCTCF OZngSiTyAi i0 Hquot ZNm H hzimzygosny N popuiailonslzz m mulailon rate Therefore smaiizr popuiailons have iowzr Equiiibr ium hzlzrozygosily Assumpilon reduced gznzilc varlailon Vi apopuiailon corrzialzd Willi rzduczd abiiily lo adapr lo changlng znvlronmzmai Condlilons w Population Viabiliiy Analysis m nllnudr39vA hJmn39 am Mm lamii 2m Panfher Ar ficle on PVAs over Time Enululinn nr Impulmion iuhilih wwmrn for the 101 l mllhpr VORTEX lulipLl39puliu Appu t39l data m s x v w n r I r mmwm populaion size Jun 39n 39 I 39 1 source and sink inbreeding problems m FupulanuanabxhtyAnalysls ame Bassmga mama caphve breedmg McCulluugh eds Umv ufchngu imrogression FressChcagu xvn 577pp5 T IE me see HABITAT L055 43 44 ulhm H H w x M x x l x 45 46 um H m hm hm mm deH m 1 w W n vamw mu HHUH l w rl mxunwH7 47 4E 4W2 scaie7 data Comments on WA WA requires iats uf aata which takes tiine Wur k aha muney whereas inanagens want answers pneaietians abaat exhnchun nah Few species Wiii get thanaagh WA When shaaia WA be used aha what type uf WA haw cump ex Pneaietians train WA can aniy be as gaaa as the aata that ga inta the anaiysis We can aniy have degrees uf cunfidence in the pneaietians train WA Papaiatians shaaia nat be inanagea ta their ininiinain viab e papaiatian size One of the greatest strengths of PVA is the ability to play what ifquot games with the model That is what if management were ta increase patch sizes ur curmechviiy What it aaait santitai were iinpnateagt
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