Social Psychology Chapter/Week 2 Notes
Social Psychology Chapter/Week 2 Notes PSY 2401
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tamika White on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2401 at Temple University taught by Dr.Melinda J. B. Mattingly in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Chapter Week 2 quotEvery Social Psychology study begins with a questionquot Ideas can come from reading about research that s already been done from something tragic perplexing questions even to something amusing Tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred i People tend to think Social Psychology is common sense after hearing results of something proven such as similar people attract Introduction to Research Methods Scienti c Method 0 Question a Theory a Hypothesis a Research 0 Question a Hypothesis a Researcha Theory a Research a testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will likely occur 0 Formulating a hypothesis is a critical step toward planning and conducting research It allows us to move from the realm of common sense to the rigors of the scienti c method an organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena 0 The goal of theories is to evolve and become more and more accurate and complete 0 The best theories are speci c and precise encompass all relevant information and lead to new hypotheses further research and better understanding 0 Theory has little worth if it can t be tested 0 Example Freud chief criticism is that his theories could not be tested suf ciently Basic Research seeks to increase our understanding of human behavior and is often designed to test a speci c hypothesis from a speci c theory 0 To answer general question such as quotwhy people behave as they do research whose goal is to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events and to nd solutions to practical problems Applied Research gt 0 Research conducted to solve a particular problem 0 quotComplex social problemsquot 0 These two are closely related in social psychology Some studies test a theory and examine real world phenomenon simultaneously Example Automatically and unconsciously stereotyping while studying the real world phenomena of police of cers mistakenly perceiving a weapon in the hands of an unarmed suspect Operational de nition the speci c procedures for manipulating or measuring a conceptual variable 0 De nitions that tell how to measure or detect something 0 To test hypothesis researchers must de ne and measure the variables in which they are interested 0 When researchers rst begin to develop a hypothesis the variables are typically in conceptual variables abstract such as love or prejudice The speci c way in which a conceptual variable is measured is operational variable Example A person might de ne intoxication of a person by their blood alcohol level while another may de ne it by when the participant feels drunk Operational variable allows a de nition to de ne a conceptual idea Construct validity the extent to which the measures used in a study measure the variables they were designed to measure and the manipulations in an experiment manipulate the variables they were designed to manipulate Extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure Refers to 1 the manipulations in an experiment reay manipulate the conceptual variables they were designed to manipulate 2 the measures used in a study experimental or otherwise reay measure the conceptual variables they were designed to measure DATA COLLECTION SelfreportsSurveys in which participants disclose their thoughts feelings desires and action is a widely used measure in Social Psychology Can consist of individual questions or sets of questions Example Rosenberg SelfEsteem Scale Can be conducted in person over the phone by mail or via Internet There is a science to designing conducting and interpreting the results of a survey 0 The researchers must identify the population of interests 0 From the general population the researchers must select a sample of individuals that must be representative of the population on important characteristics such as age sex race income education and culture background The best way to achieve representativeness is to use 0 a method of selection in which everyone in a population has an equal chance of being selected for sample Advantages gt Very easy quick cheap gt Access to individuals beliefs and perceptions Convenience Sample People are willing to do it Such as college courses requiring students to do so Disadvantages gt Wording effects the way questions are asked Example Although global warming and climate changing mean the same thing researchers found that republican respondents to the survey were more likely to believe in climate changing then in global warming gt Social desirability Lying the desire to look good for other and ourselves can in uence the way we respond Supporting evidence The bogus pipeline technique a procedure in which participants are led to believe their responses will be veri ed by an infallible lie detector causing participants to report facts about their selves more accurately gt Retroactive they usually report on thoughts and emotions from a past experience and people s memory of past behaviors are prone to error Observational Designs Naturalistic observation observe people in their naturally occurring environment Sometimes it can be very simple but other times there is a need of the level of agreement among multiple observers of the same behavior only when different observers agree can the data be trusted Ethnography observing someone from a different culture Advantages they avoid our sometimesfaulty recollections and distorted interpretations of our own behavior Disadvantages lf individuals know they are being observed their behaviors can be biased by the desire to present themselves in a favorable light Laboratory Observation Bring people into lab and observe them Disadvantages Type of behavior that can be observed Infrequent behavior RESEARCH DESIGN Descriptive Correlational Experimental Descriptive Research Provides evidence that behavior is occurring BUT NOT WHY IT IS OCCURRING Example Brain research you can see it lights up when people perform certain activities but you don t know why Surveys Observation Correlational Research Designed to measure the association between variables that are not manipulated by the researcher gt Can be conducted using observational archival and survey methods gt Suggests how distinct two different measures are 0 Ex People s self esteem and popularity 0 Or how well one variable can be used to predict another 0 Ex Success in college by college by college entrance exams A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables 0 Range from 1 to 1 0 Positive or negative type of correlation Positive Correlation 0 Increase or decrease together go in the same direction 0 EX The more bars that increases the more church s O EX The more drowning s the more icecream sales 0 Negative Correlation 0 One increases the other decreases go in opposite directions 0 Ex People who commits suicide by guns are more likely to listen to country music on the radio Advantages gt Study the associations of naturally occurring variables that cannot be manipulated or induced gender race ethnicity age gt Examine phenomena that will be difficult or unethical love hate abuse Disadvantages CORRELATION CANNOT SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT gt Manipulation from the media often uses correlations to prove views and misdirect audience Experimentation A form of research that can demonstrate causal relationships because 1 the experimenter has control over the events that occur and 2 participants are randomly assigned to conditions One of the most popular methods of testing ideas in social psychology the only way to examine causeandeffect relationships means participants are not assigned to a condition on the basis of their personal or behavioral characteristics 0 They both serve the same goal to eliminate the in uence of any factors other than the experimental manipulation By ruling out alternative explanation researchers become more con dent in understanding just what in fact caused an outcome 393 a factor that experimenters manipulate to see if it affects the dependent variable 0 Variable that is manipulated changed 393 In an experiment a factor that experimenters measure to see if it is affected by the independent variable 0 Variable that is measured oz Control Variables O Consists of participants who experience all of the procedures except the experimental treatment Quasiexperimentation Difference that already exists Experimental Condition 0 Participants who are exposed to the independent variable 0 90 O O 90 90 o3 A factor other than the independent variable that varies between the conditions of an experiment thereby calling into question what caused any effects on the dependent variable 0 When you don t randomly assign participants to conditions 0 Extremely difficult to save the data oz the effects produced when an experimenters expectations about the results of an experiment affect his or her behavior towards a participant and thereby in uence the participants response the degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent variables in an experiment caused the effects obtained on the dependent variables 0 Ways to keep lnternal validity high is the DoubleBlind Study when the experimenters don t know which part of the study the participants belong to Disadvantages gt If we control the situation so much the results may not translate outside of lab gt With high internal validity external validity suffers the degree to which there can be reasonable con dence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people and in other situations 0 Can be assumed to generalize to other situations and people 0 Usually rely on Convince samples the population that is readily available to them such as psychology student class required participation gt A way to increase external validity is Two Types of Realism 1 the degree to which experimental procedures are involving to participants and lead them to behave naturally and spontaneously gt Ways to strengthen Experimental Realism Cover story Rules to cover storythe lies that you tell people can t put them at more risk can t lie about the real risks of what they think there getting into 0 In the context of research a method that provides false information to the participants 0 Causes ethical concern o Accomplice of an experimenter who in dealing with real participants in a experiment acts as if he or she is a participant o Allows to create real situations in the laboratory that would be dif cult to nd in a natural setting 2 The degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world gt Way to Increase Mundane Field Experiment conducted in the real world outside setting 0 Although a downside is experimenter often has less control Research Ethics quotEthical Principles are based on moral valuesquot Millgram 1963 Experiment of obedience sparked controversy on whether the signi cance of the research topic justi ed exposing participants to possibly harmful psychological consequences He was the catalyst for APA guidelines put in place an individuals deliberate voluntary decision to participate in research based on the researchers description of what will be required during such participation A disclosure made to participants after research procedures are completed in which the researcher explains the purpose of the research attempts to resolve any negative feelings and emphasizes the scienti c contribution made by the participant s involvement Confidentialy can t put any of your participants identifying info at risk 0 Most research allows an anonymous aspect has been really helpful
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