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History 348

by: Savannah McNealy

History 348 History 348

Savannah McNealy
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United States History 1917-1945
Dr. Scheflin

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Week 2 Reading Summary/Notes
United States History 1917-1945
Dr. Scheflin
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah McNealy on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 348 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Scheflin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see United States History 1917-1945 in History at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 01/25/16
Joyce E Williams and Vicky M Maclean In Search of the Kingdom The Social GospelSettlement Sociology and the Science of Reform in America s Progressive Era Journal of the History of theBehavioral Sciences 84 no 4 Fall 2012 339362 Boyle 169 Thesis The religious in uences of the social gospel on settlement sociology and by extension academic sociology as it interfaced with turnof thecentury social problems merit further study New problems in industrialized America social organization US is supposedly classless but it s clear there are social classes Women join the social gospel movement to do more than just the typical female roles taking on the settlement house movement for the betterment of society 0 Settlement house movement bringing people of different classes to live in one place attempts to bridge the classes Scholars disagree about how sociology came about in the US some include the social gospel as part of the rise and some say it is written off due to its religious in uences regardless the social gospel movement was rooted in an attempt to remedy the social problems emerging with industrialization The Rise of the Social Gospel A Religion for the Progressive Era The common religion in the US since it s founding was a derivative of Calvanism a mysterious God holds the fate of individuals because of human depravity and focuses on what comes after this life The progressive era called for a new religion 0 Social gospelChristianityevangelism applied Christianity 0 This new religion instead of pushing being good for the afterlife preached seeking social good here in this life 0 old church wasn t really focused on problems of this life and was unprepared to handle what came along with industrialization 0 social gospel was predominant in the urban areas outside the south 0 social justice was a main prerogative O preached the teachings of Jesus from the new testament Major tenets of social gospel O Belief in innate goodness of humankind 0 Acceptance of evolution as compatible with God s plan for the univers O Rejection of the determinism of evolution in favor of the idea of development as progress 0 Belief in the inevitable progress of society 0 Redefinition of the Kingdom of god as an earthly utopia O Belief that the Kingdom would be established in the United States Major adaptations of the concept of the Kingdom of God 0 Many believed that the US was the New Israel that the US would become a Christian Utopia that would eventually envelop the world 0 Social sciences told to be a key to accomplishing God s Kingdom on Earth 0 The people who headed the movement were primarily white educated protestant ministers who had little in common with the working class so settlement workers came closer to the goal of bridging the class gap with the message of brotherly love by living among the working class and actually exemplifying loving one s neighbor as themselves Social Gospel Precursers and Pioneers O Horace Bushnell O Congregationalist church rejected the concept of innate depravity and instead preached that people are born good and the world turns them to sin 0 Published Christian Nurture which brought together societal development and principles of Christianity to the everyday 0 Washington Gladden 0 Supported labor unions etc 0 Advocated worrying less about the next life and more about this one 0 Stephen Colwell 0 Published New Themes for the Protestant Clergy 18581 which was described as the first attempt to relate the liberal notions of the new religion to ideas prevalent in the discipline of political economy out of which stemmed sociology I earliest statement of a social gospel previously people were associated with the social gospel movement by what they were preaching not by stating they were associated with the movement 0 European socialism 0 Followers of Robert Owen and Charles Fourier Fourier was in uenced by Saint Simon one of whose followers August Comte is traditionally known as the father of sociology 0 The first mention of social gospel may have been in the communist manifesto where marX and engels criticized socalled socialists for their new social gospel which was against political action by way of workers and advocated non violent revolutionary change 0 Rev Charles Brown 0 Some say he was the first to use the term in the US in 1886 in a lecture on labor problems the lecture referred to Progress and Poverty 1879 written by Henry George as social gospel Social Gospelers in the Academy 0 First American colleges were founded on religious ideology 0 Christian ethics highly embedded in curriculum 0 Most schools required a senior level class that focused on ethics social science or sociology yet a sociology department wasn t erected at Harvard until 1931 O Academics who supported gospel movement settled the Andover House in Boston and the Andover Reviewwhich was a vehicle for their progressive beliefs A Turn to Science 0 O O O Gladden believed Christianity could help sociology and vice versa The social gospel theology was intellectually tenable and acceptable to the newly emerging middleclass church is its link to rational scientific thought and methodology The rise of sociology in academia and reform movements were perfect for the social gospelers House settlers and social gospelers needed facts to back up their reform agendas in legislature enter sociology aka the quantifying of social problems Sociology gained recognition in the classroom during the progressive era through classroom teaching because of its association with reform work Sociology and Christianity were very closely linked at the end of the 19th century and extended into the twentieth The Settlement Houses Sociology the Social Gospel and Social Reform Many settlement pioneers identified as sociologists Most settlement workers are college educated women Service roles for women were non threatening and acceptable Many women went beyond just acting motherly towards inhabitants of settlement houses and actually collected research to support social reforms and directly addressed the social question in US social structure Men were more overt about social gospel association and goals Major people in sociology at the time provide evidence of the settlement in uence on contemporary sociology Edward Cummings was one of the earliest people to recognize the potential for scientific research in settlement houses Contributions to Sociology the first sociological studies took place outside academia best known settlement residents were also sociologists Founding members of the American Sociological Society included Jane Addams and Robert woods settlement house residents By 1925 settlement sociology had become social work 0 Ernest Burgess labeled settlement sociology as non scientific because it focused on social factors instead of social forces I Burgess ideas were tied to Robert Park s ecological theory ignores socialpsychological interaction in the community as well as the structural variables underlying class inequality I Likened ecology and free enterprise economics I Burgess ignored the social question or the interdependence of wealth and poverty I Social problems seen as manifestation of social disorganization a natural process 0 Arthur Holden accumulates sociology the social gospel and settlement work by describing the social question as the issue of class as in the plight of the low grade unskilled workman forced into a condition of abject poverty and Wage slavery O Emphasized the relationship between wealth and poverty 0 Argued that settlements were aiming to deal with class equality not bringing middleclass ideology to the poor 0 Attempted to define settlements place in society 0 Described the line of advantages or privileges aka white and wealthy privilege O Describes fourfold class structure I A privileged class that are insensitive about social responsibilities to other classes I A class that looks up to the class above them but appreciates what they have I Underprivileged but class sensitive I Small and privileged group that understand that they have a relation and a responsibility to society as a whole 0 Supported Karl Marx 0 Connected the settlement idea to social evangelism and cited Jesus first and last commandment to love one s neighbor as oneself in his final analysis 0 Viewed settlements as the only method attempting to right the social question that takes into consideration both ends of society 0 Mary Richmond the founder of professional social work criticized settlement workers for their research and theories 0 Called for practical resourcefulness to bear on problems rather than advanced social theories stating that the social order was wrong 0 Theses social theories are the untold precursor to modern sociology The Social Gospel Sociology and a Culture of Reform 0 Both social gospelers and settlement workers relied n the new science of sociology to make their case 0 All settlement workers shared a social reform agenda 0 Some were working towards realizing the Kingdom of God in the United States motivated by the social gospel O Sociology would follow suit 0 For women settlements were a new opportunity to perform useful service and to work as applied sociologists in a genderrestrictive society 0 Women in settlements quest for social democracy was very similar to that of the social gospelers quest for the kingdom 0 Both pursued a more just society provided the foundation for the growth of sociology as a discipline and profession


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