Psychology week 2&3 notes
Psychology week 2&3 notes Psyc 2010
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Silseth on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Seth A Gitter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Intro to Psychology What is psychology Study of the mind amp the way it works study of behavior amp the neural sciences behind it the mind the brain amp behavior Behavior Any action that can be observed or recorded if you can see it psychologists can record it Ex if you wanted to measure something that cannot be measured with a thermometer or a tape measure how would you measure it If you wanted to track your laughter for example you could measure it by the loudness and the duration Tools to study behavior 0 Interv39ews lnterviews and surveys seem 0 survey similar but they get different answers 0 laboratory tasks Balloon Assessment of Risk Taking See how far people will pump a balloon knowing that it could explode with each pump however the more they pump it the more money they win The further people pump it means that they39re for the most part more likely to take risks 0 Specialized instruments like sensors to track movements The Mind Internal subjective experiences 0 Thoughts amp emotions can t be directly observed Psychologists study the mind by making inferences about them based on measurements of behavior Ex babies they can t tell us how they feel but they can show their emotions on their face The Brain Nerve cells neurons amp chemical reactions The mind is what the brain does FMRI shows what parts of the brain are active at various times Brain can be manipulated by chargesshocks Psychology is a science What makes something a science How knowledge is obtained observations etc If you can measureobserveanalyze it then it is a science Subject matter does NOT determine if something is a science or not Ex astronomers measure how the stars move gt it is a science Psychology is an Empirical Science which means it depends on observation amp experimentation Any other forms of information probably aren t reliable 0 Ex selfhelp books The History of Psychology Prescienti c psychology 551BC1843AD Aristotle Plato Confucius all had interests in psychological processes 0 Han Dynasty psychological testing 0 Al Kindi cognitive therapy if you think positive thoughts you39ll be happy if you think negative thoughts you ll be sad 0 Francis Bacon Knowledge comes from experience via the senses Fundamental Basis of Empiricism o as opposed to rationalism Ex If a sheep doesn t have wool on the side facing you would you think it has wool on the side you cannot see Reasoning RationalismgtThe sheep doesn t have wool on the other side because who would sheer half a sheep Empiricismgt since you cannot see it you do not know 1843 John Stuart Mill 19th century philosopher quotA System of Logicquot 0 our theories may be biased by what we want to believe we need to observe amp experiment to make conclusions 0 Move from speculation to scienti c inquiry o Emphasized observation and experimentation 0 Basis of scienti c method Major moments for psychology The Structuralists Wilhelm Wundt o Founded worlds 1st psychology lab 1879 o Pioneered introspection looking inward to report on experience of thought tell how you re feeling 0 Ex this is your experiencegt what is it like how did it make you feel Edward Titchener 0 Father of structuralism o Believed that experience could be broken down into constituent parts Ex What is fear Increase in adrenaline heart rate ght or ight paranoia Fear arousal Processes going on heart rate breathing palms sweat eyes dilate Behavior Flight or ight face of fear asking for help Cognitions Thoughts of fearreliefescaping The Early Psychologists William James 0 Founded 1st Psychology Lab in America Functionalism 0 Function of the mind rather than form which is what the structuralists focus on 0 Ex what is the function of fear Survival 0 if you saw a tiger and didn t have fear the tiger would eat you 0 breathing quickly increases oxygen which increases blood flow so your able to ght ight Pupils dilate so you can see better Ex is anxiety ever dysfunctional o It can help you prepare better for tests 0 Too much anxiety however can make you perform poorly on tests Gestalt Psychology Wertheimer amp Kohler 1912 o The whole gt the sum of its parts 0 Focus on I I I perceptual experiences ex seeing things in blank space an average person s experiences perceptions of objects is subjective interpretation amp dependent on context when you experience fear you don t think about it you just respond to it o Context ex seeing THE vs CAT 0 Sigmund Freud I I I brought a lot of of attention to psychology strong emphasis on the unconscious mind psychoanalysis treat mental illness by resolving unconscious con icts people were not good at treating mental illness prior to him gtllt Ex they thought that psychological disorders came from the female reproductive system amp thought removing it would cure you he wanted to do talk therapy psychotherapy he established principles based on practice not actual research to see if his treatments worked found automatic conscious processes are impulsive amp sel sh ex breathing heart beaUng 1920s to Today Behaviorism O O 0 Watson amp Skinner Focused strictly on observable behavior Radical behaviorists extreme views about this not looking at mental processes No inferences about mental processes ex studying smiling but not joy Discovered on ways we learn by observing rats amp birds Ex what makes an animal more or less likely to have a behavior This helps us understand emotions amp drug addictions Interested in observing amp studying Cognitive revolution 1960s 0 O O Realization that computers receive input which is kind of like the mind Arti cial intelligence Thinking perception memory ex study a list of words do something else for an hour then see how many words you remember as a way to study memory Modern Psychology Different levels of analysis can be used to understand any psychological processes all levels over lap O O 0 Biological heart rate Psychological attitudesbeliefs judgments Sociocultural external world environment experience culture you re raised in Ex profanity it isn t part of the language section in your brain Biological feeling when you swear is psychological and swearing during pain actually is linked to a higher pain tolerance sociocultural 0 Ex why did john punch his sister 0 Biological level hormonal neurological increase in testosterone causes violent behavior amp increase in violent behavior increases testosterone Amygdala initiates emotional processes fearamp anger over active amygdala causes a lot of fear and anger paranoia Evolutionary is there something about our evolutionary past that makes males more aggressive o Psychological level cognitive amp emotional cognitive hostile cognitive biases whatever is easiest to draw from memory is the easiest behavior to have personality Type A 0 go get it attitude high achievements competitiveness aggression trait aggressiveness uses aggression during con ict instead of reasoning o Sociocultural the approach taken by social psychologists external level cultural differences raised with different beliefs about aggression Ex culture of honor revenge is OK your right to get even causes higher violence 0 recent exposure to violent media causes an increase in aggressive behavior Research in the behavioral sciences Basic foundations 0 Human intuition l a lot of people think they understand themselves but do they really limitations on intuition Ex birds of a feather ock together vs opposites attract 0 Con rmation Bias l tendency to seek out information that con rms our beliefs ignore the information that contradicts them Ex left democrat watches CNN not Fox because it agrees with the ideas l Overcon dence effect is the tendency to think we know more than we actually do Overcon dence Kahneman amp Tversky 1979 0 Changed the way we think about how people think overcon dence is the worst for the people who know the least Kruger amp Dunning 1997 unskilled but unaware those who do the poorest at grammar logic and humor are the most con dent in their abilities Hindsight bias tendency to judge past knowledge based on current knowledge Hindsight bias Murphy 1990 amp Schlesinger Social scientists discover that behavior is generally what you would expect 0 Lazarus 1949 responds to Schlesinger l better educated soldiers had a hardereasier time war than educated explains it is not always what we expect Approach the world with amiable skepticism atlanders too skeptical ask questions what do you mean How do you know Show me the evidence Requires humility The Scienti c Method Step 1 State a Theory Organized set of principles 0 Constructs Ex profanitywhat causes it quot Constructs are principles amp how they re related 0 Describes explains amp predicts behavior A good theory 0 Organizes many observations Ex Helping behavior holding a door open letting people copy notes lending someone money We want to understand amp explain all those types of helping 0 Makes clear predictions wregards to the theory Ex change in emotion causes helping behavior this is too broad of a theory because of random chance factors 0 A priori Ex Being sad increases helping behavior speci c amp clear reasoning o Parsimony as simple as possible amp able to explain as much as possible if there are a lot of little exceptions it becomes too complicated Video About therapeutic touch 0 Use energy in hands to detect energy elds in the body 0 Heal major problems by altering energy elds 0 The therapists in the video fail one aspect of the theory Step 2 Form a hypothesis Testable prediction derived from the theory we can quantify it amp its falsi able Ex detecting energy elds 1 part of the hypothesis practitioners of therapeutic touch should be able to detect another person s hand greater than chance 50 Step 3 Perform a controlled test amp analyze results eliminate other factors Ex in the movie they tested the practitioners by setting up a screen which they couldn t see through Operationalize 10 Ex practitioners of therapeutic touch should be able to detect the presence of another person s hand a greater chance Ability to detect hand Frequency of success above 50 Compare results to pure chance 50 The average trained therapeutic touch practitioner only detected the hand at a 40 rate which is below pure chance Step 4 Evaluate the Theory Did the evidence support the hypothesis 0 Our evidence casts doubt on one part of the theory Other aspects need to be tested be cautious to not throw away the theory Step 5 share the results Share with general population and scienti c community Inform people 0 Publish in a peer reviewed journal 0 People in the same eld read the research eld read amp analyze method look at the analysis evaluate results 0 Then they ll send it back with criticism that need to be xed Then you revise it and resubmit it 0 OR there s actually a 7095 chance that they ll reject it because you don t have enough Ex intro hypothesis methods detailed enough for someone to recreate the experiment perfectly data conclusion that evaluates the theory amp submit 2 types of psychology journals 0 American Psychological Association amp The American Psychological Science 0 Present information at a conference 0 Not as serious as publishing in a journal Allows people working in the same eld to put ideas together Step 6 start all over 12 New prediction Ex therapeutic touch practitioner can identify good or bad energy in the heart Replication use new therapeutic touch practitioners and the comments received from the peer reviewed journal Continually nding evidence foragainst theories causes you to build enough knowledge with relative certainty that it is likelyunlikely that a therapeutic touch practitioner can detect or alter an energy eld
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